MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/related; boundary="----=_NextPart_01C6C145.0BA2F150" Bei diesem Dokument handelt es sich um eine Webseite in einer Datei, die auch als Webarchivdatei bezeichnet wird. Wenn Sie diese Nachricht erhalten, unterstützt Ihr Browser oder Editor keine Webarchivdateien. Downloaden Sie einen Browser, der Webarchivdateien unterstützt, wie zum Beispiel Microsoft Internet Explorer. ------=_NextPart_01C6C145.0BA2F150 Content-Location: file:///C:/EE8634D2/ChronikTeil2.htm Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable Content-Type: text/html; charset="us-ascii" Table of Contents of Part II

Ta= ble of Contents of Part II



using the numbers of the referenc= e tables as shown in the paper “Six Centuries of Peit(h)mann Families from Stadthagen” (Stadthagen 1980)



Three Generations of Peitmann Shoemakers in the 16th Century        =   


table 2


Anthon Dietrich Peitmann (the “custos”), who died in Wathlingen in 168= 6


From the Life of the Army Chaplain, Pastor and Consistorial Councillor

Ludwig Peithmann (1662 – 1731)


table 12


The Master Bookbinder August Peitmann (1850 – 1938) in Stadthagen and his Family


table 4


The First Two Generations of Peithmanns as Farmers in Unterlübbe in the

19th Century


table 14


The Descendants of Colon Wilhelm Peithmann (1841 – 1919) in Unterlübbe<= /p>


table 18



























Th= ree Generations of Peitmann Shoemakers

in the 16th Century in Stadthagen<= /o:p>


At least three of the four proven= or presumed sons of Arndt Poyteman, who received the status of a citizen of Stadthagen in 1477, became shoemakers: Brun in Stadthagen and Hans and Ever= d in Hannover (see Part I, pp. 13-16). This m= ay indicate that Arndt was a shoemaker, too. Brun Merhoff, Arndt’s father-in-law, had already held the office of a Master of the ShoemakerR= 17;s Guild. In Stadthagen in members of the Peitmann families stuck to the shoem= aker tradition for at least 3 generations. This will be the subject of this arti= cle. All personal references are to the documents in the municipal archives of Stadthagen (see Burchard, 1927). Details about the professional lives of the Peitmanns as shoemakers have not come down to us in these sources of munici= pal history.


Figure 1: From the book of citizens of Stadthagen: Names of the persons who receiv= ed the rights of citizenship in 1510, among them "Brun Poyteman” (Municipal Archives of Stadthagen, B I b, nr. 1/3).



I. Brun


In 1510 “Brun Potemann̶= 1; received the rights of citizenship in his home town (p. 38). He founded the main branch “A” of the Peit(h)mann family in the present spelli= ng “Peitmann”.


Brun was a member of the guild of shoemakers. The statutes of this guild of craf= tsmen of 1500, entitled “der Shoemaker olde zede, wonheit und richticheit” (=3D”the shoemaker’s old ways, habits and rights”) lists the requirements of becoming a licensed shoemaker. The= se requirements were also applicable to Brun (Ringenberg, 1907). Whoever wishe= d to have “the possession and use of a shoemaker’s post” had to produce his “works” in front of the old and new guildmasters an= d 6 workmasters of the same area. He also had to pay “2 Rhenish guilders = in front of the guild for the public good”. Furthermore, he had to serve= an ordinary three course meal and beer from Stadthagen to the men and women belonging to his shoemaker’s district. “In addition, whoever wi= shes to have the post shall give 12 pounds of wax for their lantern. But if he w= as born as a son to someone in the same post, he may give just 6 pounds.”= ;


The craftsmen in Stadthagen in those times did not generally live off their tra= des alone. Brun, too, probably would have owned a garden, tilled a few fields a= nd raised animals.


Three entries in the “Great Book of the City”, a collection of docume= nts and minutes of the meetings from the years 1364 – 1571 (Burchard, 192= 7) cast highlights on Brun’s everyday life and his personal relations. In 1516 he is mentioned together with his father Arndt Poyteman on the occasio= n of the conveyancing (=3Dcontract on a piece of property, which has to be attes= ted by a notary public) of a piece of property (p. 208). When in 1539 Brun’s brother Tomas paid compensation to his children before getting married agai= n, Brun appears together with Cordt Meyer as the guardian (p. 185). In the same year  and at a further act of transfer of property the following persons are mentioned as “guardian= s of the children of the late Tile Guden”: ”Hans.Huge, Brun and Tomas Poyteman, brothers, and Cordt Kock” (p. 211).


The name(s) of Brun’s wife (or wives) and the number of his children are unknown. We only know about the sons who became citizens of Stadthagen and those whose names are registered for different purposes in the municipal archives: Ludeke (see II.), Evert (as a presumed son) and Luider.

In 1542 a shoemaker, Evert Poyteman, became a citizen of Stadthagen (p. 44). He was probably one of the sons of Brun, who is mentioned in the entry as guarantor. It is probably the same “Everdt Peiteman” who is mentioned in the “Great Book of the City” together with his brother-in-law Jürgen Greve in 1560 at the conveyancing of real estate= as a guarantor (p.213). In the same year “Evert Peitman’s” s= econd wife Greteke paid citizenship dues (p. 320). The notes of the municipal financial office mention citizen dues paid “for Everdt Peitman’s wife Anneke” (p. 391), possibly his third wife. Still, there is no di= rect proof that each time the name is mentioned it means the same Evert Peitmann= who became citizen in 1542.


In the year 1552 the shoemaker “Luider Peithmann” became citizen of Stadthagen (p. 46). We take it from the footnote to this entry that his fat= her Brun paid the fees for acquiring the craftsman’s post as well as for = him to become a citizen. In the so-called minutes of the city council, in which legal decisions of the council are registered, his name is mentioned in 1567 together with the name of his father Brun (p. 235).



II. Ludeke


The shoemaker “Ludeke Poyte= man (Peteman)” received citizenship in Stadthagen in 1538; his father Brun “Peteman” served as guarantor (p. 43). He married Anna (=3DAnne= ke) Poldeman, daughter of Hinrich Poldeman (died 1552) and his wife Hille née Rhode (died 1561). Hinrich Poldeman was a town senator from 1512= until 1531 and then became mayor of Stadthagen in 1543. Anna Poldeman had been previously married to her first husband Gerhard Kallmeier, citizen since 15= 34 (see table 54 in Burchard, 1927). According to the minutes of the city coun= cil, in 1544 Ludeke had a marital trust read aloud “which had been set up = for his wife Anneke, Hinrich Poldeman’s daughter, by Ludolph Vysch. Brun Poyteman, Hinrich Vynne, Thomas Poyteman, Hermen Wedeking, Cordt Smeckeworst and Brandt Scrader came along and declared that they had not been present at the establishment of the marital trust” (p. 229).


Figure 2: “Luder Peitheman” and his father “Brun Peitheman” are mentioned in these minutes of the council of Stadthagen of 1557 (Munici= pal Archives of Stadthagen, B III, nr. 1).


Ludeke’s name is mentioned two more times in the minutes of the council. In 1552 he concludes a compromise with “Hinrich Vinne” (p. 232). In the ye= ar 1561 Anna Poldeman’s brother Peter, vicar at the cathedral of Lübeck, divides the paternal and maternal estate with his brother Joac= him, pastor at Steinbergen near Rinteln, his sister Emerentia Vellmann (=3Dmarri= ed name) and with his brothers-in-law Everdt Merhof, “Ludke Poitman̶= 1;, Cord Smeckeworst, Hermen Wedeking and Cord Vrigen(=3DFreie) (p. 237). Ludek= e’s wife Anna had probably died by this time as she is not mentioned.


We know the names of the three children of Ludeke Poyteman and Anna née Poldeman: Ludolf (see III.), Jobst and Margarete. Jobst, who was a coal mine superintendent in Obernkirchen, will be presented in a special contribution= to this chronicle. In addition Anna Poldeman had two daughters from her first marriage: Anna and Alheyd Kallmeier.


Margarete married Hinrich Boedeker, who may well be identical with “Hinrich Boeker”, who became a citizen of Stadthagen in 1564 (p. 49). Burchard names seven children of hers on table 66 – here completed by the deta= ils on pp. 358 and 359: Johann who was married to Engel Auhagen, Anna who was married to Ecbert Lütkemann (sexton in Meerbeck near Stadthagen), Elisabeth who was married to Arendt Grote, Margarete who was married to Wil= helm Teller, Hille who was married to Hinrich Turre, Agnete and Cordt (citizen s= ince 1611).


Ludeke’s stepdaughter Anna Kallmeier married Hans Peitman in = Hannover, a son of “Everd Peithman”. This Everd, probably a brother of Br= un Poteman, had come to Hannover as a citiz= en and shoemaker in 1512 (see Part I, p. 16). The second stepdaughter Alheyd is sometimes referred to as Alheyd Peithman in the files of the municipal arch= ives of Stadthagen, She had at least 4 children with her husband Gerd Polzin, citizen of Stadthagen since 1555 and holding the post of blacksmith (p. 47) (see table 66 in Burchard, 1927). In the council minutes of 1606 “May= or Ludolph Poitman and his sister, the Polzin” are mentioned (p. 265). T= he latter was the owner of the house Niedernstraße nr. 30, formerly nr. = 171, from 1570 to 1589 (Weiland, 1974).


Several descendants of Ludeke Poyteman received family legacies. He himself, as a descendant of H. Merhoff, was part of the wider circle of relatives of Mast= er Arnold Bulle, the prior of Bardowick, originally from Stadthagen. In his testament, written in the year of his death 1548, Arnold Bulle had bequeath= ed a yearly sum of 110 Lübeck Marks for a “scholarship for students related to his father’s or mother’s side, who were sent to stud= y at a university as well as for the dowry of&n= bsp; maidens from his father’s or mother’s family” (p.3= 35). In the year 1571 “Ludeke Peitman’s daughter Margret, married to Hinrich Boedeker” is mentioned in the receipts and notes of the Bulle testament (p. 339).


Anna Poldeman, Ludeke’s wife, was the cousin of Johannes Koller, provost in Lüneburg, who had died in 1536 and had left a legacy. In 1532 he had s= et up a trust to finance the dowry “for the blood-related maidens and wi= dows under 40 years of age” and in 1534 he had set up a deed or gift “for the poor blood-related friends” as well as a “stipen= dium scholasticum et academicum” (p. 346). Ludeke’s stepdaughter Alh= eyd Kallmeier received a sum from the Koller testament in 1565 (p. 349). In 1589 the two daughters of “Alheit Peitemann, Gerd Pulsin’s widowR= 21;, Magdalene and Marentzia, received something (p. 354).


Ludeke’s wife Anna Poldeman had an uncle, master Johannes Rhode (died 1532), “Secretary and Dean of the Lübeck Cathedral”, who left in = his will, among other things, an annuity of 1000 Lübeck Marks for the dowr= y of maidens related to him. Margarete Poyteman’s daughters Margarete, Hil= le and Elisabeth Boedeker received this sum in 1618, 1630 and 1640 respectively (p. 357 – 359).



III. Ludolf


In the year 1566 “Luleff (= =3DLudolf) Peitmann”, the last in the succession of owners of the shoemaker̵= 7;s post in the family became a citizen of Stadthagen (p. 49). Ludolf married Gesche Kohnen. Their marriage remained childless. Ludolf is listed with his wife “Geiske” in the 1573 membership list of “Our Lady’s Brotherhood of Shoemakers” (p. 334). This was one of the many pious brotherhoods in Stadthagen that grew mostly out of the individua= l craftsmen’s guilds and were dependent on them. At first they were pure prayer groups, b= ut they also were engaged in active charity and merry camaraderie (Bernstorf, 1955).


Ludolf is also listed together with his wife as number 121 in the register for 1576 – 1602 of the persons entitled to brew beer (p. 375). His wife paid t= he fee for this right to brew beer in 1568, presumably their wedding year (p. 392). In Ludolf’s times beer was brewed in 154 citizen’s homes = in Stadthagen, that is, in every other citizen’s house (Bartels, 1972). = The brewing houses mostly belonged to wealthier citizens. By acquiring the righ= t to brew beer, it became possible to improve one’s living conditions considerably. In the following centuries many more members of the Peit(h)ma= nn families held the right to brew beer. Only when the brewers’ guilds w= ere dissolved in 1873 did the privileges of the brewery owners disappear. ̵= 1; In the statutes from the year 1574 it was decreed: “The council, the jurors, the guild and the public have agreed that from here on the brewers = will be able to brew beer from Candlemas (February 2nd) until Walpurg= is Day (May 1st) and then from Walpurgis Day until Candlemas for ab= out another 5 weeks” (Weiland, 1970). Each brewer had the annual right to= use 12 cartloads of malt and to sell the beer which he did not need for his own household, except, for example, during the times of church services (Bartel= s, 1972).


Since 1558, Ludolf Peitmann was the owner of House nr. 78, today Niedernstr. 31, which he had obviously built himself. He lived here with his wife until his death in 1606 (Weiland, 1974).


“Lulef” and “his youngest brother Jost Peiteman (steward to the count)”= are mentioned in 1570 in the “Great Book of the City” at the occasi= on of a conveyancing and in the council minutes in 1596 (p. 214, 249). In 1582 “Ludolf Peitman and his two aunts, the Mehrhave one and the Weman one” are mentioned again in the council minutes (p. 254). In 1599 the names of the married couple “Ludolf Peiteman, mayor, and his wife Gesche” are mentioned in the file on city debts (p. 379). In the year 1600 the executors and the friends of the Bulle testament meet to compromis= e on the administration of the testamentary capital. Six men signed, Ludolf Peit= man as the first (p. 341).


For almost half a century, Ludolf held public offices in the city. From 1558 un= til 1594 he was member of the city council as “senator”. The council consisted of 24 citizens, of whom one half acted directly and one half acte= d in an advisory capacity. The change from the “old” to the “new” council took place each year on the Wednesday following Epiphany. From 1594 until 1597 Ludolf was chamberlain, and from 1598 until = his death he was mayor of Stadthagen for eight years. These offices, too, were = held by two persons. The sworn or governing mayor and the sitting or advisory ma= yor, as well as the two chamberlains, exchanged offices at the beginning of each year. Ludolf, as well as all the other council members, chamberlains and ma= yors acted in an honorary capacity and received compensation only for his expend= itures in the course of duty (Weiland, 1970).


Ludolf Peitman died on august 9th, 1606. His will, filed under the numb= er K 56a in the Municipal Archives of Stadthagen, not only gives us insight into= his life, bit it is also an important document for the cultural history of the = city at the turn from the 16th to the 17th century.


In the name of the Holy Trinity, Amen,


After I, Ludolff Poitman, mayor of Stadthagen, and Gesche, my married wife, have considered the end of our worldly lives, we have decided jointly, upon well-reflected and ripe counsel and in possession of all our mental capacities, to write our last will and testament. We therefore lay down and decree our last will firmly in this letter, and, where it cannot be conside= red as a real testament, we want it to be considered as a Codicil or interprete= d in such a way this it is a legal and binding will.


Firstly, we bequeath and give to the school choirs of the poor child= ren here 200 Thalers, which shall be deposited with an honourable member of the town council, so that, after both of us have met our mortal ends, the administrators of St. Martin’s Church shall take the yearly interest = and shall buy bread for the aforementioned poor children and shall put it into theirs baskets.



Secondly, we  give to t= he school choirs of the poor pupils here 100 Thalers, which have been deposited with Gerdt Dronewulff, citizen, so that in the same way, after our deaths t= he yearly interest will be used to buy bread as needed and to distribute it am= ong the poor pupils, according to the advice and the expertise of the principal= and other schoolmasters.


Thirdly, we leave 100 Thalers, which we have placed in Jobst Sander’s cellar and for which we hold him liable, to the poorhouse of Chancellor D. Anton Wietersheim. We wish to register these latter 200 Thale= rs with the city council as well, should God grant that we may live for some t= ime yet. If this cannot be done the two sums shall be requested after our deaths and shall be deposited with the council or another certain place, so that t= he poor pupils and the persons in the poorhouse will receive their due from the interest. This shall also be respected by the supervisor of the poorhouse.<= o:p>


Fourthly, we wish to retain the power to decide what we want to do w= ith the rest of our pennies and wish to use them in the same way to the glory of God and for charitable purposes. But, if I, Ludolff Poittman, by the will of the Almighty, shall have gone down such a way that I cannot decide upon mys= elf, and my dear wife should have survived my death, the Lords Chamberlain shall advise my wife in my place as to how and to whom the remaining money can be bequeathed to the glory of God. If my wife should be persuaded by one of our common friends to give something to this person or another and should this happen in undue proportions, those who shall have received such moneys or o= ther goods shall be made liable to return them.


Fifthly, we order in God’s name the following: Should the chil= dren of our mutual relatives Jobst Poitmans in Obernkirchen and Gerhard Kohnen m= arry one another by God’s ordinance, we wish to have them as our heirs: Lu= dolf Poitman, Jobst’s son, and Margrete Kohnen, Gerhard’s daughter. After our mortal ends they shall inherit our house, our ward, our barn and = our leasehold property as well as the garden and fields as we own them now and = as they will be found after our deaths, including all stocks and stores, lives= tock and everything. Nothing, not even the smallest spoon shall be taken away. T= hey shall have it all and freely own and keep it. However, should one of these heirs, before marrying, perish according to the unchangeable will of God, or not desire this marriage, in that case we wish the next brother, Tonnies Poitman, or Gerd Kohnen’s other daughter and also any other children = of Jobst Poitman and Gerhard Kohnen, who get married, to be our real and true heirs, laid down by us.


This our testament shall not become valid until both our souls have found release, and in order to ensure that it will then be executed and fol= lowed in every way, we ordain that an honourable and wise member of the council of Stadthagen, to be named by us, shall be our executor. I, Ludolf Poitman, ha= ve written this of my own free will , for myself and for my wife, as a documen= t of a true testament, and I have signed it in my own writing and have sealed it with my own seal, and I have asked a notary public and witnesses to witness this with their seals and their initials.


Given in Stadthagen this Fourteenth day of July, in the Year of our = Lord 1606.


I, Ludolff Poitman, herewith certify in my own handwriting that this= is my own last will and testament and that of my wife.

Inscriptio Testium et Notarius seqtur.

I, Johannes Bloming, certify that I have been called to witness this testament of Mayor Ludolff Poitman together wit the following witnesses, by signing with my own hand and by imprinting my seal. I, Diderich Poitman, certify the same with this my handwriting and seal. I, Burchert Bodeker, certify this in my own hand and seal. Tomas Kampen, my hand. Berndt Tuner, = my hand. Lorents Reineking, my hand. Frantz Westerman, my hand and seal.<= /o:p>


(Statement of the notary public:)

On July 21st of 1606 between the 8th and 9th hour the honourable and most wise Ludolff Poitman, mayor of Stadthagen , summoned me, Jodcus Bolte, notary public, and the above mentioned witnesses, all members of the council, to his home and furthermore asked us into his bedroom, where His Honour was sitting in a chair in front of the hearth and where he walked to the witnesses and then presented this closed letter and = said that his last will and testament was written therein, which he wanted to be considered as final and binding after his and his wife’s death. He therefore bade the witnesses, that they witness the testament and document = this with their initials and their seals, which the witnesses then did. And then said mayor required of me as notary that I should certify this with my signature and, as necessary, to make one or more copies. Upon being questio= ned, the mayor’s wife also declared publicly that what her husband had ordained was her will.


Actum vt. sup. in the presence of Johann Grote and Dietrich Frittmei= er as reliable witnesses, specially required by me, the notary public.


Opened on April 27th, 1607        =                    Jodoc= us Bolte Notarius manu ppria subsc.


I, Jodocus Bolte, notary public, hereby certify with my own hand that this copy is a true copy, word for word, of the signed and sealed original<= o:p>


In this testament Ludolf Peitman had left his possessions to his nephew Ludolff Poitman and to the niece of his wife, Margrete Kohnen. Although the marriage between them actually took place, th= ese two are  not mentioned as owne= rs after 1606, but instead Clamer Heine and his wife Elisabeth Crops (accordin= g to Burchard, p. 263, already a widow in 1503) are recorded as owners (Weiland, 1974). Elisabeth was the daughter of Hinrich Crops, mayor of Stadthagen from 1605 until 1607 (Weiland, 1970).Ludolf was the last Peitmann shoemaker in Stadthagen. He had no descendants who could have continues the shoemaker tradition. The end of this era in the family history may also be seen in a context with the general decline of the guild in Stadthagen. Towards the en= d of the 16th century the economic life of the city, which had been d= irected by the city council, came more and more under the control of the ruling pri= nce, whose power grew, and the shoemakers’ guild was dissolved (Bartels 19= 72 and Bokeloh 1964).



I thank Mr. Heinrich Peithmann (Rostock) for his contributions to the discussions on the files in the Municipal Archives of Stadthagen which conc= ern the Peitmann shoemakers and their relations in the 16th century.= The municipal archivist, Mr. F. Bartels (Stadthagen),  was helpful in locating sources.


Unprinted Sources

Files from the Municipal Archives Stadthagen (see text)

Commemorative Book “Heiner Peitmann 1914-1943)



see list in German


The “Custos” Anthon Dietrich Peithmann died in Wathlingen 1686


Some bearers of the name Peit(h)mann, whose origin has not (yet) been completely determined, lived in the vicinity of Hannover during the 17th century. It seems natural to assume that they are relatives or descendants of the Peit(h)mann branch “C” in that = city on the river Leine. Among those was the schoolmaster Anthon Dietrich Peithm= an in Wathlingen, district of Cell.


The church registers of Wathlingen record that Anthon Dietrich Peithman died on March 20, 1686. In the registers of baptisms, weddings and deaths, which da= te as far back as 1630, there are No further dates mentioned of him or of other bearers of the name Peit(h)mann. So we Do not know his age, marital state, = or whether he had children. Little light is shed on the circumstances under wh= ich Anthon Dietrich started his services in Wathlingen.


The post of “schoolservant” in Wathlingen had probably been establi= shed around the times of the Thirty Years War (Pröve, 1925). During the Gen= eral Visitation of the churches in the Principality of Lüneburg (1667-1669)= it was found “that there is hardly an elementary school system worthy of= the name. Most schoolteachers were not only sextons, but also at the same time innkeepers, tailors, cabinetmakers, glaziers and tillers of the fields. Therefore most of them left the teaching to their children or their wives&#= 8221; (Fischer, 1898).


In the framework of this visitation the Head Superintendent Hildebrandt also c= ame to Wathlingen, where the local pastor Johann Behnen described “his cr= isis with the school” to him. The “Generalissimus” explained “that such efforts for the schools were not reputable for the pastor”. The school should be “run by a special schoolmaster (if only the funds were available) or by a sexton, if he is found to be able enough” (Pröve, 1925).


Soon after that, in 1668, Anthon Dietrich Peithman started in his office as chur= ch- and schoolservant in Wathlingen. He is the fourth schoolmaster or sexton th= ere whose name we know. Nothing is known of his previous activities.=


There are no details known of the work of Anthon Dietrich Peithman in Wathlingen.= In the entry of his death in the church register he is called: “Custos” (=3Dsexton). This name was typical for teachers who no= t only taught, but also had to render numerous services to their village’s church and parish. “As sexton, the teacher must be helpful and willin= g to do what the pastor requires for his ecclesiastical and official functions, = such as baptisms, funerals, weddings, the holy communion, etc.. The sexton must = hand the pastor the usual things and also sing, pray, and help with other ceremo= nies. – A village sexton had often learnt the necessary things from his fat= her who had had the same profession. “From him he learnt how to read, wri= te, and do the 4 sorts of arithmetic, the catechism and the church hymns by ear” (Fischer, 1898).


During his 16 years of service in Wathlingen, Anthon Dietrich Peithman served under three different ministers. Until 1672, the aforementioned “Johan Behnius” was minister. After him followed his son, Friedrich Behnen, = from 1672 until 1679 and after 1679 Michael Zimmermann, son of a rector from Lüneburg.


Anthon Dietrich Peithman exercised his office as schoolmaster until 1684 – a= bout 2 years before his death. But even before that another son of Johann Behnen= had taken his office as sexton of the village. He also became Anthon Dietrich’s successor as schoolmaster, so that from then on both offic= es were once again united in one person (Pröve, 1925).<= /p>


Mr. Walter Pohlsander (Salt Lake City, USA= ) referred me to the schoolmaster Anthon Dietrich Peithman in Wathlingen.


Unprinted Sources

Church registers of Wathlingen (<= st1:place w:st=3D"on">Celle)



see German text











































From the Life of the Army Chaplain, Pastor and Consistorial Councillor: Ludwig Peithmann (1662-1731)=


In Ludwig Peithmann we are confronted by a minister who led an unusually active and eventful life for his times, at the turn of the 17th to the = 18th century. As young clergyman, he witnessed the struggles between the Christi= an Europeans and the Islamic Turks over the Occident. Later he took an active = part in the conflicts between Protestants and Catholics in the Prince-bishopric = of Osnabrück after the Thirty Years War. From the numerous documents that have come down to us we can trace the life of a personality who remained fa= ithful to his own beliefs even in difficult times, but always acted upon good reflection, adroitly, steadfastly, and courageously. All 10 sons and sons-in-law of Ludwig held honourable offices and presented him with at lea= st 56 grandchildren.


Ludwig Peithmann was born in Bückeburg presumably as the youngest child of the rector Master Ludwig Peithmann (died in 1683), who was later pastor in Altenhagen, and he was christened there on April 13, 1662. His mother, Catharina Sophia Prange, was the daughter of the pastor and superintendent Johann Prange (1588-1654) in Bückeburg. Ludwig was the first member of= the Peit(h)mann family to study at the University of Jena. He enrolled there on May 13, 1681 (Jauernig and Steiger, 1977).


Participatio= n in the War against the Turks


It is likely that Ludwig Peithm= ann joined the Volunteer Army of Brunswick and Lüneburg shortly after he h= ad finished his studies. This army had joined the R= epublic of Venice in its fight against t= he Turks in Greece. After their defeat in the battle at the Kalenberg (near Vienna) in 1683, the Muslim armies, which had advanced to Ce= ntral Europe, retreated to the Balkans. Venice exploited this weakening of the = enemy troops to reconquer its former Greek possessions in 1684. Duke Ernst August= I of Brunswick and Lüneburg, who ruled = in Hannover for 1680 until 1698, belonged to those European sovereigns who “rented” mercenaries to the rich Republic of Venice<= /st1:PlaceName>, which was short of men.


The fight against the Turks may= have been a territorial war for the Venetians, but for the other Europeans, its primary purpose was the defence of the Christian faith against the attacking Mohammedans (Röhring, 1975). This must have been the reason for the yo= ung and probably eager theologian Ludwig Peithmann to join in the battles in Greece.


We know a good deal about the c= ourse of the military campaign thanks to the diary of Sergeant Joachim Dietrich Zehe= . It bears the title “Description of the March of the Princely Hannover Tr= oops to Morea (=3DPeloponnesia) and of the Curious Occurrences There during the = Three Campaigns of 1685, 1686 and 1687” (Röhrig, 1975). In his notes, = Zehe mentions the military chaplain Peithmann three times.


We can gather from an entry in = the church register of (Bad) Essen (see p. 79)= that was made after his return from Greece that Ludwig Peithmann was not among the first three Hannoverian Infantry Regiments to go to G= reece. These had left Hannover with about 2500 = men in January 1685, and had fought the first Levantine campaign in August and September with heavy casualties. He was probably among the 1700-man reinforcement that started for Venice in t= he spring of 1686 under the command of Count Karl Ludwig of the Palatinate (16= 58 – 1688) in accordance with the treaty of January 13, 1686, between Er= nst August I and the Republic= of Venice. They joi= ned the remaining 1500 men of the first campaign on the Greek island of Leukas. The Venetian land troops under the command of the former Swedish Field Mars= hal Count Otto Wilhelm of Königsmarck conquered the harbours Navarino and Modon in the south as well as Napoli de Romania (=3DNauplia) in the east on September 3 during the Levantine campaign. The names of the cities are first mentioned in the same order by Ludwig Peithmann.


The winter quarters of the Hann= overians under the command of count Karl Ludwig were set up partly in Napoli and partly in Zante. Here Zehe reports about Ludwig Peithmann for the first time:


“Zante, February 1687

21: Death of Colonel Schüt= ze after his prolonged illness and on the following day

22nd: burial in a Gr= eek church towards evening. 10 sergeants carried him, and 4 lieutenants accompa= nied them and bore the corners of the shroud, decorated with long black crepe. N= ext to the corpse went 12 petty officers, each of whom carried two wax torches = bound together by black crepe. The corpse was followed by the Count and all the officers of our troops. The Prince’s Regiment marched in separate platoons in front of and behind the corpse; the ten flags of the Regiment w= ere furled and bound in black crepe and were carried by a standard-bearer. As t= he corpse was brought into the church, the whole regiment sat down in the squa= re in front of the church. The Master Peitman held a beautiful funeral address, and when the corpse was then lowered into the earth, the regiment shot three salutes. In the evening, all the officers were invited to the funeral meal = and were well treated.


Schnath (1938) writes about the lamentable state of the Hannover troops = in the winter 1686/1687: “This time, too, the losses due to the infectious diseases were a lot heavier than the actual casualties. When they moved into their winter quarters, hardly 500 men of the Hannove= r soldiers were still able to do duty; 1300, among them 58 officers, had been killed during the campaign, the survivors were in the saddest situation and= in discontented spirits. They were used by the Venetians in the most reckless = way as cannon fodder, were deceived and were told lies...”


In July 1687, a new Hannover Re= giment arrived. The aim was the definite conquest of the peninsula Morea. “Having landed on July 22nd near Patras, Morosini and Königsmarck blew up a Turkish corps, took the fortresses of Rion and Antirrhion at the narrow entry to the Gulf of Lepanto (the so-called small Dardanelles) and moved forward, cutting off Peloponnesia , over the Isthmus= of Corinth to Athens, whose Acropolis was defended by 600 Turks. The city and the fort were taken= at the end of September. Thus the campaign of 1687 ended. It had caused fewer casualties than the previous one, for the Hannover troops only lost about 479 men” (Schnath, 1938).


About Athens we read in the diary of Sergeant= Zehe among other things:


Athens, Oct= ober 1687

8th: There are 5 Tur= kish mosques, and in Athens as well as around it there are 200 Greek churches. In 150 of them the holy = mass is read daily. In this place lives the Archbishop, who is a man of great reputation. Upon the request of Field Marshal Königsmarck, we were gra= nted the right to use a Turkish mosque for our church services. We then cleaned = it, an altar was set up, and on October 6th, when the gospel reading concerned the royal weeding, we celebrated our first church service there. There were so many officers and soldiers, also Greek and Italians, that not= a single person more could have found standing room. People were crowded in t= he doorways and all around the church. Mr. Peithmann, the field chaplain of the Count’s, Regiment, gave a marvellous sermon, in which he spoke of the dedication of the church first, and that the best ceremonies for this purpo= se were true worship and to follow God’s unaltered own words. We thanked= God that He had driven out the Mohammedan abomination from that place and shown= us His great Grace by allowing us to proclaim the Holy Gospel in there. After = the sermon, we sang the Te deum laudamus, and concluded with the benediction.





Athens, Nov= ember 1687

27th,: Today after t= he sermon a small Negro was baptised who belongs to the Field Marshal, and the Field Marshal himself, Major General Ohr, Colonel Cordon and Lieutenant Col= onel Goer as well as the wives of the Field Marshal, of one of the colonels and = of a captain all stood as his godparents. The boy was interrogated by Master Peitmann in Italian as to all points of faith, all of which he could answer well and was then baptised and called Carl Gustaf.


In the spring of 1688, the surv= ivors of the Levantine regiments from Hannover returned to their homeland via Venice. For the 73= 0 miles from Venice to Hann= over, the group of soldiers that Zehe was in took from April 18th until May 12th, which means that they did 30.4 miles a day not countin= g a day of rest. Of the total of 6500 Hannover soldiers, who had fought as mercenaries for the Repub= lic of Venice from 1685= until 1688, only little more than half returned to their homes. Among those men w= as Ludwig Peithmann.


Assignment of the Parish in (Ba= d) Essen


After the strain of the war, wi= nter quarters and return march Ludwig Peithmann did not have time to rest. His sovereign, Duke Ernst August I, appointed him on May 21st, 1688,= in a document of that same day (see figure 1) as pastor in (Bad) Essen in the Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück. Following the death of the Osnabrück Bishop and Cardin= al Franz Wilhelm von Wartenberg in 1661, Ernst August of Brunswick and Lüneburg had assumed the regency over the Prince Bishopric of Osnabrück. In the peace of Westphalia of 1648, it had been agreed for this important jurisdiction that both confessi= ons should have equal rights and that the bishops should alternate, i. e. rotate between a Catholic and a Protestant bishop. The Protestant prince-bishops w= ere to be drawn from the Brunswick-Lüneburg dynasty (Smechula, n. d.). In a “collation” (=3Dtransferral) letter of May 21st, 168= 8, to the consistorial councillors the Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück, Duke E= rnst August gives the reasons for transferring the parish of Essen to Ludwig Peithmann, and lists the rights and obligations related to this office (StA Osnabrück, Rep. 701 I, nr. 600):


To the worthy, honourable and l= earned councillors who have been called to my consistory in Osnabrück, and to= all and sundry of my faithful subjects. We, Ernst August, by the Grace of God, = do hereby proclaim that after the death of our former pastor to Essen, A. Wittlage, in our Diocese of Osnabrück, this office, which has been provisionally held by Master Gerhard Mormann, is, by our Grace and by the p= ower vested in us to transfer and install clergy, hereby conferred upon the mili= tary chaplain Ludewigh Peitmann who has come back with our troops from Greece and who has a reputation of credibility, good talents and pious life. We confirm herewith and decree that he shall henceforth be our rightful minister and pastor in our parish of Essen<= /st1:place>. He shall preach and teach accor= ding to the Holy Bible, to the unchanged Augsburg confessions and the relevant symbolic scriptures. He shall administer the H= oly Sacraments according to their institution by Christ and he shall do everyth= ing that a true preacher and pastor should do and according to his responsibili= ty to God Almighty and Us as his country’s ruler. To this effect, we con= fer on him by Our Grace, the appurtenances, income, privileges and responsibili= ties which other pastors have enjoyed before him, old and new and nothing left out... In documentation whereof, we have signed this collation letter personally and have sealed it with our princely seal.

Signed: in our residential city= of Hannover the 21st= May 1688 Ernst Augusts


After taking charge of this ass= igned congregation in (Bad) Essen, Ludwig Peithmann wrote in the local church reg= ister: “In 1688 at Pentecost, I, Ludwig Peithmann, born in Bückeburg, w= as brought hither by the Superintendent General from Hannover, Mr. Hermann Barckaus, and introduced as theol. licent.. after having just returned from= Morea, Greece, where, in my third year as military chaplain, I had witnessed the conquest = of the fortresses Navarino, Modon, Napoli die = Romania, Patras, Lepanto, Corinth, Athens, etc., and had had the good fort= une to teach in person there, where the Holy Apostles Andrew, Paul, etc. had preac= hed.”


Ludwig Peithmann married Cathar= ina Margarethe Sickmann (born in Osnabrück around 1672, died in Essen April 22nd, 1729) on February 9th, 1690, in St. Catherine’s Church in Osnabrück. She was the daughter of the Osnabrück merchant and town councillor Bernhard Sickmann (died in Osnabrück July 29th, 1705) and his second wife A. Sara von Lengerke (born in Osnabrück Augu= st 16th, 1648, and died there January 8th, 1713).=



Consistorial Councillor in Osnabrück


It was probably his personal co= ntact with Ernst August I from the war against the Turks, in addition to his functions as pastor in Essen, that brought Ludwig Peithmann an office in the church leadership. The Duke, since 1692 also an Imperial Elector, appointed him as Ecclesiastical Counci= llor in the Protestant Consistory of Osnabrück. In this, Ludwig succeeded Pastor Johannes Niekamp from Melle, whom Ernst August had appointed as court chaplain in Wolfenbüttel. Consistories were commissions instituted by princes or magistrates after the Lutheran Church Constitution had assigned = to them the management and administration of the church. consistories, in the = name of the cities or rulers, were the highest administrative and representative bodies in church affairs and exercised supreme jurisdiction in matters of ecclesiastical law. Around the turn of the eighteenth century, there were t= wo ecclesiastical members of the Osnabrück territorial consistory. –= ; In the description of the events pertaining to the consistory, we follow the dissertation of Smechula (n. d.):


When Ludwig Peithmann took offi= ce in the consistory, the disputes between the Catholic cathedral chapter on the = one hand, and the Protestant knights belonging to the cathedral’s foundat= ion, along with the Protestant territorial consistory, on the other hand, about = the so-called right of the equivaleny, had been going on for decades. The strug= gle dates back to the arrangements set in the Peace of Westphalia (1648) for an alternating succession of bishops. In spite of the provision that a Catholic bishop was not to meddle in the religious affairs of the Protestants, the Protestant knights of the foundation feared possible infringements by the Catholics. Therefore, as early as 16478, they had demanded – with the support of Sweden and the House of Brunswick-Lüneburg – a consistory as an ecclesiastical administrative body to protect the interest of the Protestan= ts. the Catholics made their agreement dependant on being granted the right of equivaleny and further set conditions which for the most part seemed unacce= ptable for the Protestants, for example the “stabilisation” of the Jes= uits in Osnabrück, the foundation of a new monastery and the transfer of a Protestant church to the Catholics.


The dispute, which was fought a= damantly by both sides and in which Ludwig Peithmann was involved, seems most strang= e in view of today’s ecumenical efforts.


When in 1697 the Protestants ma= de another attempt at a solution, Ludwig participated for the first time in the commission which had been set up for the purpose. The Protestant Knighthood feared Ernst Augusts’s sudden death, before the consistory could be f= ully instituted and recognized. The Catholic chapter only went so far as to recognize this commission, but continued to ignore the proposals of the Protestants, such as “properly” establishing the consistory, dividing ecclesiastical possessions in communities with a mixed population = of Protestants and Catholics, and addressing the complaints of Protestant subjects.


When Ernst August died on Febru= ary 2nd, 1698, the consistory had not been finally instituted, nor had the problem of equivalency been solved. the Catholic cathedral chapter assumed the responsibilities of government until a new Catholic bishop could be elected. Now a time for “many vexations" followed for Ludwig Peithmann. T= he cathedral chapter summarily dissolved the consistory, dividing the church possessions in the parishes with a mixed population and took control of all files and seals.


With a protest submitted four d= ays later, the consistory succeeded in maintaining the ecclesiastical councillo= rs Ludwig Peithmann form Essen and Jodocus Braun from Fürstenau in their positions. On February 18th, the Cathedral Chapter ordered Peithmann and Braun to appear in the living quarters of the Catholic Cathedral Senior von Korff together with their consistorial secretary, threatening them with dismissal if they failed to appear. Korff pointed out that the Cathedral chapter, as heir and owner of = the cathedral foundation, was fully empowered to install, remove, and reconfirm members of the consistory in their office. He demanded that Peithmann and B= raun recognized the Cathedral chapter “in politics, spiritualibus, et ecclesiasticis” – i. e.., as head of the worldly, spiritual, and ecclesiastical spheres – and to swear an oath of allegiance to him as Cathedral Senior. In vain Peithmann and Braun asked for fourteen days to consider the matter and seek the counsel of the House of Brunswick-Lüneburg and the Cathedral Knighthood. In vain they referred= to the provisions of 1648 which stated that a Catholic bishop had no right to interfere with the affairs of the Protestants. After massive threats the consistorial councillors saw no other option than to recognize the chapter “in politics”; they could not, however, bring themselves to recognize its sovereignty “in spiritualibus et ecclesiaticis.” = when the Cathedral Senior, on behalf of the chapter, promised to comply with the provisions of the Treaty of Westphalia, concerning the religious denominati= ons in the Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück, Peithmann and Braun were wise en= ough to give in to force and they swore the oath of allegiance. In this way they succeeded in being confirmed by the chapter in their positions on February = 19th-


The new bishop, elected in Apri= l 1698, Charles of Lorraine, resided mainly in Vienna, so that the Cathedral chapter was able to further consolidate its power in Osnabrück,  and the consistory lost more and m= ore of its importance. For Ludwig Peithmann, the senior of the town consistorial councillors and therefore bearer for the most responsibility for the Protes= tant church in the Principality of Osnabrück after the sovereign, this was “a time of distress”. In a letter dated January 3rd, 1704, he complains to the patron of the church in Essen, Baron von dem Bussche auf Hünnefeld, about the lack of resources:


“The Jesuits build pala= ces in Osnabrück and they receive rich tribute from all sides, yet we do n= ot even know where to find a patch four our rags; nevertheless, I am ready to preach in a sheepfold or sub divo (=3Dunder the open skies), as I have done before, if my listeners might thereby be saved from sinful difficulties; we would send a collector to Hamburg or to other rich cities if only we had an explicit recommendation and if beggary was not so universal” <= span lang=3DEN-GB>(Dökel 1919).


In 1716, Ernst August II, the y= oungest son of Ernst August I, who had been born in 1674, took over the episcopate = in Osnabrück, which then reverted to the Protestants. The consistory rega= ined its importance and continued its dispute with the cathedral chapter over the right of equivalency (Smechula, n. d. ).


For 35 years Ludwig Peithmann e= xercised his functions as an advisor to the bishop. His inspection marks can be seen= in many of the church registers of the former Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrü= ck that have come down to us from those times. When he died in 1731, he had installed all the Protestant ministers of the land in their congregations (Dökel, 1919).



Every Day Life of a Pastor


The State Archives of  Lower Saxony in Osnabrück mai= ntain numerous files which give us some insight into the official and private lif= e of the pastor Ludwig Peithmann in (Bad) Essen. In addition to the most important events, examples of the events in the everyday life of a pastor three hundred years ago should not be omitted.


Figure 3: Ludwig Peithmann̵= 7;s seal (copy)


On October 2nd, 1688= , Ludwig Peithmann gave the Bailiff von dem Bussche-Ippenburg his written assurance = that he would continue to preach in his noble home, which was situated in the pa= rish of Essen, and to dispense the sacraments until an ordained private preacher could be appointed. (Dep. 40 b, nr. 1421).  In a letter addressed to Duke Ernst August I Ludwig reported that a = new organ by Master Hinrich Clausing from Herford had been installed in the church in Essen and that it was tested n the second Sunday of Advent, 1692. (Rep. 701 I, nr. 26). – On September 24th, 1694, the council and mayor of t= he city of Osnabrück acknowledged having received from Essens’s pas= tor, Ludwig Peithmann, a loan of five hundred Thalers in “good, convertible Mark coins (the Thaler calculated at 21 Osnabrück Shillings)”; twenty Thalers were paid in interest (Dep. 3a 1, XI, nr. 273). This sum was probably part of his wife’s inheritance. – In October 1967, Lud= wig had a notary public protest for him against a fine of five Marks (“Mahlbrüchte”), for having allegedly cut five cartloads of firewood without permission. The fine had been assessed in the Hölting= , a special court for wood-related matters, by the timer warden, who owned the exclusive right to cut trees in the March of Essen. Peithmann cited the testimony of seven witnesses regarding the traditional right of the pastor = in Essen to freely c= ut firewood (Rep. 701 I, nr. 496).


The following letter of Ludwig Peithmann to Bishop Ernst August II of July 1716 (StA Osnabrück, Dep. = 24, Rep. I, Fach 5 nr. 5) originated from a dispute between the minister and the patron of the church. It sows the long-standing consistorial councillor dar= ed by that time to tell the young sovereign in polite but clear words that he expected him to make the decision in accordance with Peithmann’s wish= es.


Most Honourable and Serene Du= ke,

Most Gracious Lord!

May it please Your Royal High= ness to be humbly informed today, this Thursday morning, at 8 o’clock, Dame von dem Bussche auff Hunefelt sent four carpenters to the church of Essen, with which I have been entrusted, and without my knowledge undertook on her= own authority to transfer the pulpit to another location. As such action can ha= rdly find Your approbation, I must humbly bid Your Royal Highness firmly to forb= id such violence and, should these workers continue with the translocation in = the meantime, to sovereignly ordain the restitution of the pulpit before next Sunday, for I cannot ver well set foot tin the transferred pulpit without making a fool of myself in front of the congregation. Confident of  Your most gracious granting of = my request, I remain in all subjection


The most humble servant and suppliant

of Your Royal Highness,

my Gracious Lord,

L. Peithman


On September 10th, 1= 727, Ludwig Peithmann asked his sovereign for “real assistance in my dutie= s of imminent old age and diminishing strength.” He proposed as an assista= nt his son-in-law, Otto Henrich Marmelstein, the private minister of the famil= y von dem Bussche auf Hünnefeld (Rep. 701 I, nr. 600). The latter wrote subsequently: “On the 2nd Sunday of Advent, 1727, the Honourable Councillor and Pastor Ludewich Peithmann himself introduced me to the local congregation, and I was thereafter invested by Archdeacon Völkers” (Dökel, 1919).


Figure 4: Title page of the let= ter written by Ludwig Peithmann on September 10th,

        =        1727, to Bishop Ernst August II with the request for assistance in h= is duties.

        =        Ernst August’s brother was King George I of England, therefore Ludwig

        =        used the address “Royal  Highness (=3DKönigliche Hoheit)”


During the last two years of hi= s life, Ludwig Peithmann suffered from gout, so that he could no longer perform his duties in the congregation. After his death in 1731 his son-in-law and successor, Otto Henrich Marmelstein, made this entry in the church register= of Essen: “On April 30th, Consistorial Councillor and Pastor Peithman died here in Essen in his 70th year of age, the same who was consistorial councillor for 35 years, pastor for 42 years in this parish and whom I assisted for four years as pastor in Essen.”





Eleven children were born in (B= ad ) Essen from the ma= rriage of Ludwig Peithmann to Catharina Margarethe née Sickmann (the spelli= ng of their names is as recorded in their baptismal entries in the church register):


Anna Eleonora, Sophia Margareth= a, Berend Ludwig, Eberhard Ludwig, Sabina Engel, Maria Anna, Clamor Albert, Wilhelm Ludwig, Johann Ludwig, Christoff Bernhard Ludwig and Wilhelmina Sop= hia.


There will be separate articles= on the six sons in this chronicle. Berend Ludwig (born August 9th, 1694) became senior civil servant, courtier and chamberlain in Altdorf (near Speyer),

Eberhard Ludwig (born around Ma= y 9th, 1697, died in Hoyel, near Melle, in 1739), pastor in Barenaue (near Bersenbrück), Enger (near Herford), and Hoyel,

Clamor Albert (born July 6= th, 1705, died June 9th, 1770, in Gehrde, near Bersenbrück), pa= stor in Gehrde,

Wilhelm Ludwig (born about Sept= ember 1st, 1707, died 1766), senior civil servant in Frankfurt and senior bailiff at Stauffeneck in Wurtt= emberg.

Johann Ludwig (born about Septe= mber 16th, died in Essen September 1st, 1782), steward in Gesmold, Streithorst, Sondermühlen and Hünnefeld (today all in the district of Osnabrück), and

Christoff Ludwig Bernhard (born December 22nd, 1711, died in Stadthagen March 25th, 1784), pastor in Heuerssen (near Stadthagen) and Steinhude, church superintendent in Bückeburg and senior preacher in Stadthagen. =

The youngest daughter Wilhelmin= a Sophia (born March 31st, 1714) died at the age of three months and was buried on June 23rd, 1714.


The eldest daughter Anna Eleonora (born in Essen Febr= uary 18th, 1691, died June 5th, 1759) married the Land Commissioner and subsequently Commission Councillor, Daniel Julius, Weissich – Weissing – (buried in Stadthagen on June 6th, 1734= ), on September 6th, 1712, in Essen. The father Ludwig Peithmann married this couple and later the other daughters as well. Daniel Julius Weissich had been previously married to Anna Maria Armgart Campe in his fir= st marriage. She had paid citizenship fees in 1701 (as wife of the city clerk Weissig) in Stadthagen (Burchard 1927, p. 441). The couple and later the wi= dow alone lived in house nr. 23 – today Obernstr. 18 – (Weiland 197= 4), They had at least 8 children who were born in Stadthagen:


1.      Ignatius Ludewig Hermann = (born around June 9th, 1714), later lawyer and notary public, since 17= 44 citizen of Stadthagen (Burchard p. 92)

2.      Johan Daniel Wilhelm (bor= n around January 16th, 1715)

3.      Ludolph Reinhard (born ar= ound March 30th, 1717)

4.      Sophia Juliane (born arou= nd August 26th, 1718,), married in Hamburg

5.      Sabina Anna (born around December 1st, 1719)

6.      Johanna Bernhardina (born around November 4th, 1722), married to Krüger, steward in <= st1:place w:st=3D"on">Ippenburg Castle

7.      Louyse Regine (born aroun= d June 20th, 1726), married to Ficken in Osnabrück, and

8.      Christoph Traugott (born = around January 9th, 1733), army captain in Walsrode.


Sophia Margareta (born around October 7th, 1692, buried in Stadthagen February 17th, 1732) married Hermann Wilhelm Wippermann on June 26th, 1714, in = Essen. Wippermann (born in Petzen in Fe= bruary 1677, buried in Stadthagen on September 9th, 1745) was the son of the count’s steward “zur Brandenburg”, Karl Heinrich Wippermann and of Anna Esther Peitmann (see table 9). At the time, Hermann Wilhelm held his fathers position as steward “zur Brandenburg̶= 1; in Schaumburg-Lippe; later he became an official and land commissioner in Stadthagen. In 1714, he paid citizenship fees in Stadthagen, and his wife d= id so in 1715 (Burchard p. 85; Mitt. lipp. Gesch. Landeskunde 254, p.226 ̵= 1; 233). They lived since 1717 in house Nr. 55 – today  Klosterstr. 36 – but also ow= ned the neighbouring house Nr. 37 (Weiland 1974). The tombstone for both spouse= s is in the old cemetery in Stadthagen. They had 9 children:


1.      Carl Ludwig Daniel (born January 18th, 1716)

2.      Hermann Ludwig David,

3.      Ester Margarete, married = to Anton Ludwig Merkel, superintendent in Sachsenhagen,

4.      Leonora Maria (born in Stadthagen about December 20th , 1720)

5.      Lieborius Christian (born around February 11th, 1728)

6.      Anna Friederica (born aro= und September 1st, 1724, in Stadthagen, buried December 29th, 1759)

7.      Eberhard Anton Wilhelm (b= orn around February 11th, 1728)

8.      Albrecht Friedrich (born = in Stadthagen around August 2nd, 1730), and

9.      Georg Conrad Wilhelm (born around January 30th, 1732, in Stadthagen)


Sabina Engel (born in Essen September 13th, 1799) married on July 5th, 1718, in <= st1:City w:st=3D"on">Essen the future consistorial councillor Georg Chris= tian Brockhusen (born 1689 in the state of Hannover, died in Quakenbrück February 26th, 1759). In 1716 he was minister in Iburg, and from 1717 until 1732 second minister and from 1732 u= ntil 1759 first minister in Quakenbrück (Meyer 1941 and 1942). The death of Sabina Engel is not registered in the church register of Quakenbrück. = The couple had at least 11 children who were all born in Quakenbrück (Pohlsander in a letter):


1.      Georg Ludwig (born around= May 16th, 1719, buried in Quakenbrück August 8th, 17= 25)

2.      Johann Daniel Ludwig (born around March 12th, 1721, buried in Quakenbrück May 7th= , 1726)

3.      Margarethe Sabine (born a= round February 1st, 1723), buried in Quakenbrück January 11t= h,  1724)

4.      (E)Leonore Sophie (born a= round October 30th, 1724), married in Quakenbrück October 1s= t, 1744, to pastor Johann Ziegler

5.      Sophia Elisabeth Maria (b= orn around September 12th, 1726, buried in Quakenbrück Septembe= r 13th, 1726)

6.      Wilhelmina Ludovica (born around December 12th, 1727), married in Quakenbrück in Nove= mber 20th, 1748, to Dr. iur. Johann Friedrich Christian Cassius, city clerk in Quakenbrück

7.      Johann Christian (born ar= ound December 9th, 1729, buried in Quakenbrück May 21st, 1731)

8.      Christiana Sabina (born 1= 732), presumably the same “Sabina Albertina” who married the Royal War Councillor von Lengering from = Emden in Quakenbrück on June 6th, 1753

9.      Johanna Albertina (born a= round February 28th, 1733), married to Pastor Dannemann in Wagenfeld n= ear Diepholz

10.  Maria Diederica (born aro= und September 28th, 1736, buried in Quakenbrück April 12th, 1742), and

11.  Gebeta Christina (born ar= ound February 18th, 1740)


Maria Anna (born in Essen April 27th, 1703, died in Essen August 10th, 1751) got married December 7th, 1722, in= Essen to Otto Henrich Marmelstein (born around 1690 = in Kirchlengern near Herford, died in Essen November 14= th, 1759), son of Pastor Bernhard Adrian Marmelstein and his second wife Regina Anna Sicken from Quakenbrück. Otto’s great-grandfather Sebastian= had been the “first assistant pastor in Levern after the Lutheran Reformation”, and his grandfather had been the second preacher after = the Reformation “in Lennigern in the Principality of Minden” (de Jo= ng in a letter, Schlichthaber 1752). Otto Henrich Marmelstein had served since 1717 as private minister on the neighbouring Manor of Hünnefeld. After having served as assistant to this father-in-law, he took over the position= of pastor in Essen, which he had held until death. The married couple had nine children who were baptized in Essen<= /st1:City>:


1.      Anna Sophia Margreth (born around January 14th, 1726)

2.      Friedrich Ludwig (born ar= ound June 20th, 1727

3.      Clamor Christian Bernhard= (born about the Feast of Invocation 1729)

4.      Eleonora Sophia Maria (bo= rn October 31st, 1730), married in Essen to Hermann Henrich Rodtbert, past= or in Ippenburg

5.      Sabina Margaretha Henriet= ta (born March 25th, 1733), married in Essen on October 24th, 1753,= to Anton Neddermann, merchant and tradesman in Hunteburg

6.      Henrietta Dorothea Johanna (born August 8th, 1736)

7.      Ludewig Leberecht Gottlieb (born August 8th, 1736)

8.      Johann Fridrich Otto (born December 11th, 1737), married in 1774 to Anna Cath. Maria Greven from Buer, pastor in Neuenkirchen, near Melle, and

9.      Karl Ludewich (born Augus= t 7th, 1740), pastor in Vörden.




I thank Mrs. Marianne Peithmann= (Bad Essen-Wimmer) and Mr. Herbert Peithmann (Espelkamp-Frotheim) for their collaboration in looking though the church registers, Dr. Chr. Battenberg, presently in Hannover, G.E. d Jong (Bussum, Netherlands), H. Lochmann (Cologne), and W. Pohlsander (Salt Lake City, USA) who put additional data = and archival copies at my disposal.


Unprinted sources


1. Church registers in Büc= keburg and Stadthagen (county Schaumburg) as well= as Bad

    = Essen, Quakenbrück and Neuenkirchen, near Melle (county Osnabrü= ck)

2. Files in the State Archives = of Lower Saxony in Osnabrück

    a) Protestant Consisto= ry (Rep. 701 I):

        nr. 26: documents concerning the construction of the organ in Essen

        nr. 496: documents concerning the free firewood for the pastor in Essen

        nr. 600: documents concerning the different pastors of Essen

    b) v. d. Bussche-Hünnefeld (Dep. 24), Rep. I, case 5, nr. 5

    c) v. d. Bussche-Hünnefeld (Dep. 40 Bet= r.:), nr. 1421

    d) City of Osnabrück (dep. 3a 1), XI, nr. 273



see list in German



















The Master Bookbinder August Peitmann (1850 R= 11; 1938) in

Stadthagen and his Family



What is today the Harten bookst= ore, owned by Mrs. Käte Beinsen, in Stadthagen, Obernstr. 58 was in the possession of the Peitmann family for 75 years. Sources for this article include several essays and articles published in local newspaper supplements about the bookstore founder, the master bookbinder August Peitmann, as well= as on his artistically talented son Friedel (see bibliography at the end of th= is article). The personal data were taken from Dr. Heiner Peitmann’s genealogical card file.


Year as an Apprentice and Years of Travel


August Louis Peitmann was born = in Stadthagen on September 29th, 1850, as the next-to-last of seven children of the Stadthagen baker and city senator Dietrich Wilhelm Peitmann (1810 – 1866) and his wife Johanne Marie Elisabeth Ehlerding. While h= is brothers Daniel Ludwig Wilhelm (1838 – 1902) and Ludwig Heinrich (1843 – 1922) became bakers – the elder one inherited the bakery in Niedernstr. 35 – August turned to the bookbinding art, hitherto unkow= n in the family. He was apprenticed to the master bookbinder Heinrich Heine in Niedernstr. 32. During this time – 2 years after August had left scho= ol – his father died on September 5th, 1866.


August Peitmann was among the l= ast of the Stadthagen master craftsmen to have been a journeyman. In what was usua= lly a three year period of travelling, the young journeyman was supposed to exp= and his practical and commercial experience from competent masters of the craft= at home and abroad. When the new commercial regulations were introduced in 186= 9, the obligation to travel after the apprenticeship was abolished in Germany= .


Figure 1: August Peitmann in hi= s early years


Figure 2: the August Peitmann b= ookstore in the house Obernstr. nr. 58 in Stadthagen


Very detailed diaries have been preserved from the bookbinder journeyman August Peitmann. “He reports= in detail and captivatingly, with an eye for the important and the unusual. The good, fluent German which he writes makes it a pleasure to read his diaries” (Bernstdorf, 1954). In the following excerpt August Peitmann begins by describing the start of his journey which had been delayed by the outbreak of the war against France:


“Stadthagen, July 27th, 1870

The day on which I was suppos= ed to travel to unknown places for the first time had been set for July 19th as early as three weeks before that date. On July 7th, 8th<= /sup> and 10th, I had participated enthusiastically in the festival in Stadthagen featuring shooting matches, and thought seriously about the preparations for my departure, when sudden and unexpected obstacles came in= my way. On July 13th Mr. Heine asked me to wait another eight days because work had not been finished on account of the Festival. At first this was not at all to my liking, but then I decided it was not important after = all whether I started eight days earlier or later, and so I promised to stay. On the following day my brother Heinrich came from Hann= over and ordered me to postpone my departure until he would have found employment for me. – I was at this point that the war started like a bolt from the blue.”


August Peitmann continues to re= port on the mobilisation in Stadthagen and on the further events of the war, as far= as he had knowledge of them. Three months later he continues his entries:


Hannover, October 27th, 1870:

Of course, I could not have g= one to foreign parts, in such circumstances, for where might I have hoped to fi= nd employment? Everywhere trade, commerce and crafts had come to a standstill.= The war had disturbed the peace and happiness of many thousands. –


I, too, hoped that the war wo= uld soon come to an end, for my work went badly, and I earned 10 sgr (=3Dsilver coins) less than before the war. But my hope was not realized. Then suddenl= y, on Saturday, August 27th, I received a letter from my brother Heinrich, who wrote that he had found employment for me in Hannover.


Heinrich had been working in = Hannover for quite some time and since the beginnin= g of the war he had been drafted there a garrison baker. After I had received the letter, I made its contents known to Mr. Heine and received his permission = to leave the next day, although I should have given 14 days notice. The essent= ials for my journey were procured as quickly as possible, and on Sunday afternoo= n, August 18th, at 5:30 I left Stadthagen. By 7 o’clock I was= at the train station in Hannover, my first = time in a larger city. As it would soon be dark and was furthermore raining, I w= ent right away to the home of Mr. Osterwald. s Mr. Osterwald was not at home, I wanted to go find my brother, but I had to hire someone to take me to the garrison bakery where my brother worked, who left me there.


My brother was not at work ju= st then, but in his quarters, and I had to ask directions many times in order = to get to Kreuzstraße. Here I found him at home when I arrived at 9 o’clock that evening. He was delighted to see me. I stayed with him f= or the night, and on the following morning I stepped into another workshop for= the first time. After I had received “condition” (=3Dwork, position, employment) from Mr. Ost3erwald, I went to see the master in charge of the journeymen and the doctor in order to become a member of the health insuran= ce organization. At 1:00 P.M. work started for me. Apart from myself there wer= e 6 journeymen and 2 apprentices. The machines and iron presses that I saw here= for the first time were cardboard scissors, a cutting machine, a mechanical pre= ss, a roller and a press for gilt edging. At first, the wok consisted of various calendars, which were made for bookshops. About 1000 pocket and desk calend= ars were being made when I started to work there. They were bound wholly in “alleur”, the covers were pressed and gilded. Later, several thousand working calendars were made.”


From Hannover August Peitmann w= ent to Goslar with another journeyman via Brunswick and Wolfenbüttel. “= ;They planned to continue to Saxony’s lovely capital, Dresden. But the two men were not in a = hurry. Everything beautiful and worth knowing was taken in along the way, and therefore they started by looking deeply into the Ha= rz Mountains” (Bernstorf, 1955):


”September 16th, 1872=

We had left Harzburg with the intention to climb the Brocken and after= two hours’ march we had already reached the level of the clouds. Around 4= : 00 that afternoon we came to a lonesome farm, Molkenhaus (“Whey House”), in which there was a dairy. We asked for sour milk, and when= we had received and drunk it, the owner of Molkenhaus showed us the continuati= on of the footpath. After about a quarter hour’s walking on a level path= we reached a rather deep ravine, through which the River Radau flowed over rock debris; a steep path led down to a crude bridge over the Radau, made form branches.


From then on we had to climb constantly; the air between the dark pine trees was dank and dreary, for the trees were so close to each other that hardly a sunbeam penetrated them. The ground was so slippery that one had to take care not to fall on the damp mo= ss. Following the instructions of the owner of Molkenhaus we had always followed the path that looked most used, and therefore we had missed a turn which had seemed to us less used. Now the path seemed to get ever more lost in the mo= ss so that it was hardly recognizable until it finally ended, hardly wider tha= n a foot, at a highway.


We met the landlord in the fo= yer. He showed us to the coachmen’s quarters after he heard that we were artisans. Here, in the lights of the kitchen lamp were four or five coachme= n at the table with the house servant, telling of the journeys and drinking assiduously from their beer bottles, which stood in front of them. We had supper in their company, and after the coachmen had fed their horses they w= ent to bed at 10 o’clock. Straw mattresses were rolled out on the floor f= or us and were covered with woollen blankets, on which we soon found our rest, hoping that the coming day would show us the glory of a beautiful sunrise.<= o:p>


And the morning came, -but not the sun. Impenetrable fog surrounded the vicinity so that we could not see = the house any longer twenty steps away looking for heather blossoms. With our bouquets we returned to our room, freezing and with fingers stiff from the cold, and we were very happy when we got the opportunity to take an omnibus= to Wernigerode, all the more so as we were told that the sun was not expected = to come through that day.


The omnibus left at about 10:= 00 A.M.. One gentlemen had rented the wagon alone. Although the coachman had t= old him nothing of our joining him on this journey, he soon agreed to it upon t= he condition that we would join him on his little side trips. This was most agreeable to us, for we, too, wanted to see the most beautiful spots of the= Harz Mountains. After 1 1/2hours of driving along a slightly bumpy road, on the sides of which there had been charcoal burning places with smouldering heaps of wood,&nbs= p; the wagon stopped at the foot of a gigantic cliff, the so-called Ilsenstein (=3DIlse’s Rock). This cliff was climbed by making a small detour and we had a wonderful view from there over the small town of Ilsenburg in the Ilse Valley, for the fog had diminished. On the highest point of the cliff was an iron c= ross (probably erected to commemorate some event).


After a short stop we followe= d a steep, almost vertical path down the cliff and to the wagon, which soon rea= ched the town of Ilsenburg. During the midday rest there, we had the opportunity to look at the interio= r of an iron-rolling mill nearby. After that we continued on a nice, wide highway through a pleasant landscape, blessed with the finest weather. The tops of = the mountains which we had just left were still covered with a few clouds and t= hus presented an imposing sight.


At about 2:00 P.M. we reached= the friendly little town of Wernig= erode.”


The two journeymen travelled on= from Halberstadt to Dresden by train, and arrived there on September 20th, 1872:


“The landscape had chan= ged. Instead of seeing fertile fields of grain all around a before, we had viney= ards on our left, planted on the flanks of fairly high hills, and the towers of = Dresden came into= view on our right. Having arrived at 4 o’clock in the afternoon, we first loo= ked for lodging and then for work. By the following morning we had already both found “condition” (=3Dwork), and at 1 o’clock in the afte= rnoon we stood ready at our workbenches, dressed in smocks and aprons. My friend Wilhelm worked for Mr. Köhle, Palmstraße 20, and I for Mr. Hilsebein, Große Brüdergasse. This we had reached our first great destination after eight days of journey.”


Figure 3: August Peitmann with = his daughter Margret


Master Bookbinder and Bookselle= r


Upon his return and after passi= ng the examination to become a master bookbinder, August Peitmann bought house nr.= 58 on Obernstraße (formerly house nr. 73) from the master painter Louis Brunstermann, in order to start his own business. The commercial register of the city magistrate shows that the bookbinding store of August Peitmann was registered on September 26th, 1877. This step took some courage,= as there were already two older bookbinding shops in Stadthagen.


On October 23rd, 188= 0, in Stadthagen August Peitman married Karolina (Lina) Helene Dorothea Hachmeist= er (born Pohle, near Apelern, on March 17th, 1932), daughter of the tax-collector Karl Adolf Friedrich Hachmeister. Until her marriage she had = been selling hats for women and children together with Ida Wollenweber in Obernstraße, house nr. 48. After her marriage she moved the shop to h= er husband’s home and continued the business by herself.


On the development of the Peitm= ann bookstore we can cite a contemporary with a vivid and clear description (Wehling, 1937):


“In the beginning the bookbinding shop and the stationary shop had been the main thing as was the case in the other bookbinding shops of the city, too, but the stock of books kept growing year by year. Peitmann did not only sell schoolbooks, but also other literature for youth. A lending library was set up which has not exis= ted anymore for two decades. The bookstore gradually grew bigger and bigger. Un= der the date o February 5th, 1887, we find in the commercial registe= r of the city magistrate the entry: “August Peitmann: Books, Lending Library.” In 1905 the hat shop had to be given up since the space was needed for the steadily growing book and stationary store and the bookbinde= ry.


The years from the foundation= of the business until World War I were years of growth and prosperity; they we= re golden years. The name Peitmann became known in the city and the countrysid= e, the bookstore developed into a business well-known even outside of Stadthag= en for paper, stationary,  school= books, youth publications, belles-lettres, and scientific works. So many townspeop= le and farmers from the surrounding country side bought their pens and exercise books, their songbooks and their science books at Peitmann’s when they went to school decades ago. So many boys from the boys’ grammar school were always in and out of the Peitmann shop before or after school hours or even at recess. A rich circle of customers grew, and the little Peitmann se= rved them all with the same amount of attention and often humour. Industrious and eager, he worked in his shop day in and day out and executed with great care and dedication all of the tasks assigned to him. He found faithful helpers = in his wife and also, over the years, in his children, who stood at his side in the shop.”


In his essay for the 60th<= /sup> anniversary of the bookshop Wehling (1937)writes about the personality of August Peitmann:


“Who does not know the little master bookbinder on Stadthagen’s Obernstraße. His statu= re is not great, but his nature and his will were tough and unbending, and his diligence was always great. He turned 87 on September 29th of th= is year. And up to the last years he used to bind books from time to time in t= he little room at the back of the shop. The real workshop is at the side of the house next to the yard. It has seen a lot of painstaking attention to detail and effort, many days of work and industrious, busy hours during the long years.” – “As in many traditional middle-class families in Stadthagen the life of Aug. Peitmann shows the rigorous, often stubborn Stadthagen civil pride, which will energetically represent its own standpoint.”


Hardly ever did August Peitmann= fail to go to church on Sundays. He always took his accustomed seat under the pulpit made by von Oheimb in St. Martin’s Church. About one and a half years after their golden wedding anniversary, = his wife died. After that his own physical and mental abilities diminished visi= bly. On May 2nd, 938, he passed away at the age of 88 years. The local newspaper reported on the funeral ceremony:


“The cupboards and shel= ves full of books in the small shop were hung dark and solemnly, where the coff= in stood between wreaths and laurel trees, on the spot where the deceased had stood so often during his long life, serving his customers from town and country. From this place of his long-lasting work, from his small and well-loved little house, where he had stood by his loved ones for better or= for worse, he started his last journey to God’s acre.”


The couple August Peitmann and = Karoline née Hachmeister had three children: Friedel, Johanne und Margret.


Figure 4: August Peitmann with = his daughter Johanne




Son Friedel


The son Wilhelm Georg Friedrich (nicknamed Friedel) was born in Stadthagen on March 17th, 1883. After attending elementary school from 1893 until 1896, he went to high sch= ool in Stadthagen. His teachers noticed Friedel’s artistic gift. His inclinations led to his wish to become an art teacher. Yet, as the only son= he was supposed to take over the parental business. Thus he learnt bookbinding= in the paternal workshop.


Friedel Peitmann is described a= s a cheerful, sociable and humorous young man but also as modest and quiet, and always well liked as a guest. His talents for the arts were visible in the = way he handled the pencil and the writing quill as well as in his love for musi= c. He played the cello, violin, guitar and clarinet and founded a small orches= tra for home music and for hiking songs.


Friedel Peitmann’s artist= ic work should not and cannot be properly appreciated here. That may be left to art experts. We only wish to give a short survey of his works.


Figure 5: Friedel Peitmann


Friedel Peitmann found his subj= ects close to home, mainly in turn-of-the-century Stadthagen and the surrounding= countryside and its inhabitants. He observed the then quiet life of the citizens in his home town with open eyes and discovered its many little human shortcomings.= The excesses at festivities and the boisterous tricks of the youths did not esc= ape his attention. It is not surprising that caricatures play an important role= in his artistic work and that satire composes=   large part of his literary work.


Many pen-and-ink drawings and watercolours depict views of Stadthagen, for instance the portrayals in the= series “Stadthagen in the Snow”. These drawings, showing the daily lif= e in the city and countryside are also historical documents, for example, “Farmer’s Living Room”, “End of Work”, “High School Student” and “Martenjautmann”.<= /p>


Under the pseudonym “Ölste” (=3Dthe oldest) Friedel Peitmann published poems a= nd essays of humorous, contemplative, and local interest regularly in the local papers, and he did so in low German (=3DPlattdeutsch) as well. Some of his = tales such as “Martenjautmann”, “May Trees” and “Hirzeböcke” have cultural-historical importance as well; = they tell us about old customs in Stadthagen.


Friedel was allegedly in contac= t with Wilhelm Busch (a well-known German writer and artist), whose influence can = be recognised in many of his portrayals. It is also said that the then well-kn= own satirical review “Simplicissimus” and other weekly publications took note of his imaginative and humorous sketches and texts. Furthermore, Friedel produced witty drawings for advertisements.

In 1901 Friedel Peitmann exhibi= ted his drawings in the so-called “Workers and Amateurs Exhibition” in = Berlin and in 19= 12 at an arts exhibition in Bückeburg. In the summer of 1914 he showed some of = his best drawings at the “Burga-Book and Graphics Exhibition” in Leipzig. The draw= ings were not returned to him because Friedel was drafted right after the outbreak of World War I and was sent to the French front immediately as sergeant of the= 2nd Infantry Reserve Corps nr. 15. As early as September 17th, 1914,= he lost his life in a battle near Reims as = one of the first men from Stadthagen. He found his last resting place along the ba= nks of the River Marne.


After Friedel’s parents h= ad learnt the terrible news of the death of their son in December, they tried = in vain to recover Friedel’s drawings from the Leipzig exhibition. These, however, were irretrievably lost.


Figure 6: “Mausoleum and = the old Latin School in Stadthagen”, a pen-and-ink

        =        drawing by Friedel Peitmann


One of the special displays at = the “Old Stadthagen” exhibition in October 1938 was dedicated to the “Works of Friedel Peitmann”. Karl Ludwig Harten, a grandson of August Peitmann’s sister Friederike Johanne Luise, intended to edit a small collection of poems before World War II. Because Harten was drafted a= nd killed in action on the eastern front, however, the publication never took place. A large part of the remaining drawings and watercolours as well as t= he manuscripts of poems and stories had come into the hands of Friedel’s niece Ursula Grahl, and they are still in private hands in Stadthagen. The fulfilment of Ursula Grahl’s express wish, a permanent exhibition of = he pictures ad writings of Friedel Peitmann at an appropriate place in his home town, is planned.


W. Weiland in Stadthagen made t= he works of Friedel Peitmann available to the public in a series of essays of the Stadthagen division of the Schaumburg-Lippischer Heimatverein e. V.. They w= ere published under the headings of “Poems, Tales and Drawings of Friedel Peitmann”, “Watercolours, Pen-and-Ink Drawings and Sketches of Friedel Peitmann” and “Hercules – the Story of a Rascal in Words and Pictures”. Postcards showing the town according to pen-and-= ink drawings by Friedel Peitmann can still be bought in Stadthagen bookstores, = just as they had been on sale in his father’s business even before World W= ar I.


Figure 7: “Children on Martenjautmann’s Day in the Obernstr. in Stadthagen”, pen-

        =        and-ink drawing by Friedel Peitmann




Selection of Friedel Peitmann’s Poems<= /i>


The beautiful Days


These are the beautiful days,

When everything seems like in a= dream,

When Mother Nature goes to rest=

Contented and uncomplaining.


Why do you stand there, sufferi= ng,

And dreaming of the lost youth?=

Is not the leaf in its golden g= arment

Much prettier than on a spring = day?


The young springtide wakens it = again,

Each leaf to new being.<= /p>

Thus life billows up and down,<= /span>

Resting only for its Sunday.


And this Sunday is no death:

A day of rest in the course of = the world..

Should your happiness break int= o a thousand shards,

Life would build it up again.




So it is!


Such are people,

At least fifty in three score:<= /span>

They will warmly press your han= ds

And think: “You idiot!= 221;

And if you were the mayor

And went walking down the stree= ts,

The children would stand still<= /span>

And take off their caps.=

But once you had passed them,

They would laugh at you<= /p>

And stick out their noses at yo= u

And stick out their tongues at = you.-

They will show you an owl

And will tell you that it is a = crow;

And it does not matter at all

Who you are and what you are.-<= /span>

Friends, when you arrive, will = say:

“Welcome a thousand times= !”

And when you leave, then they w= ill think:

“The Devil with him!̶= 1;




My Homeland’s Hills


My homeland’s hills are b= eautiful

Still woods on heights so far a= way

With Nordic oaks at signing spr= ings

Though which the huntsman stalk= s his prey.


Such mighty forests have I seen=

That there eternal twilight glo= ws

Defiant cliffs in evening gold<= /span>

Ravines, though which the wild = creek rolls.


My homeland’s hills are f= airer still

With youthful dreams and fairy = tales

For sagas, poems, and the like<= /span>

Can be born only their vales.



Transcript of the German hand-w= ritten text in the cartoon on p. 67:



Der bestech= liche Posten


Vor “= Vater Philipp” auf und ab

geht der Ge= freite Zappenschlap.


Da raucht w= ohl einer, wie es scheint

Sofort geme= rkt! Warte, Freund!


Der raucht ja-------Ei freilich!

Da ist die = Sache schon verzeihlich.



Als er plötzlich seine Schritte hemmt

Ein Duft, d= er aus der Zelle kömmt.


Jedoch.....= ein tüchtiger Soldat

Erweist sic= h auch als Kamerad


Und der Gef= reite Zappenschlap

Geht rü= ;stig auf und ab.





The Corruptible Guard<= /p>


Before the jail walks back an= d forth

the valiant sergeant Pheeblew= orth.


There’s someone smoking= there, I think.

My friend, you must desist th= at stink!


He’s smoking-------big = deal!

The sergeant’s pardon i= s for real.





When suddenly outside the cel= l

His steps are halted by a sme= ll.


And yet a soldier, brave and = true,

Shows that he is a comrade, t= oo.


Contented, Sergeant Pheeblewo= rth

Continues to walk back and fo= rth.



Figure 8: “The corruptible guard” by Friedel Peitmann



The Daughters


The elder daughter Johanne (bor= n in Stadthagen February 8th, 1885, died there April 30th, 1960) remained unmarried. She helped her father, particularly after the end= of World War I when his savings fell victim to the hyperinflation of 1923. On January 1st, 1925, Johanne took over the parental bookstore, although her father continued up to a ripe old age to bind books and to sell them. After she had managed the business for 28 years, she handed it over to Heinz Harten in 1953.


August Peitmann’s younger daughter Margret (born in Stadthagen February 26th, 1887, died t= here July 3rd, 1944) got married on September 7th, 1912, to the businessman Johann Grahl (born in Dresden February 5th, 1886= , died April 6th, 1931), who was active in Stadthagen and in Berlin. Th= ey had two children: Ursula and Friedel. Ursula (born September 11th, 1913, died November 8th, 1980) did not get married and was activ= e in remedial education in Clent Grove (West Midlands) in England. Friedel (born Octobe= r 16th, 1919) was killed in action on October 24th, 1941, in Russia.=




I thank Dr. Anne-Liese Maass-Pe= itmann and the municipal archivist, Mr. Friedrich Bartels, (both Stadthagen) for his information on the present-day whereabouts of Friedel Peitmann’s works.



Unprinted Sources:


Dr. Heiner Peitmann’s genealogical card index




See German text











































The first two generations of Peithmann Farmers

 in= the 19th Century in Unterlübbe


In the early 19th century an event of great importance for the Peithmann families of the main branch ”B” took place: Friedrich David Peithmann (1778 – 1850), son of a family with a rich tradition = of theologians, became a farmer and the ancestor of 6 widespread rural family branches. The abolition of feudal obligations, the construction of a new farmhouse and the emigration of the first members of the family to the USA wer= e also parts of the farm and family history of the previous century.


The Farm = Owners


Friedrich David Peithmann was born in Frille as the fifth of 10 children of the pastor Eberhard David Peithmann (1743 – 1814) and his wife Anna Rebecca née Stohlmann, and he was baptised here on September 3rd, 1778. His father’s sphere of activity was ecclesiastically part of the county or principality Schaumburg-Lippe, where his ancestors had lived; politically it was part of the Prussian county of Minden. Frille is therefore the first station of the family history in Westphalia.


There is no information on the youth of  Friedrich David. In the entry documenting his marriage in 1807 he is mentioned as manager of Wietersheim Manor, situated west of Frille. We can = only conjecture how he came to this position. Wietersheim had been an administra= tive unit for the Order of St. John of Jerusalem until the end of the 18th<= /sup> century. Until the end of 1796, the administrator of the Order had been Friedrich David Peithmann’s godfather, Major Baron Friedrich Wilhelm = von Kleist.


It is likely that there were personal contacts between the pastor Eberhard Dav= id Peithman and the administrator of the manor which was situated within the parish of Frille. And von Kleist may have assigned tasks in the management = of the manor to his grown-up godchild. Obviously Friedrich David remained in t= he service of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem after v= on Kleist had died and General von Knobelsdorf had taken over Wietersheim in t= he beginning of February 1797. After his death at the end of 1799 the manor was secularised and sold to the head of the political administration of Minden County: Georg Philipp von Cronberg.


No details are known concerning the service of Friedrich David Peithmann in Wietersheim; the respective documents seem to be missing in the State Archi= ves in Münster form the files of the Order and subsequent manor.


When the possibility of marrying into a farming family arose, Friedrich David ga= ve up his management post. According to oral tradition a miller – probab= ly the owner of the windmill of Rothenufflen near Unterlübbe – is s= aid to have arranged the marriage. The 28-year-old Friedrich David Peithmann married the 40-year-old Caroline Sophie née Hahne, widow of Colon Jo= hann Hermann (Ober-)Rodekopf on January 16th, 1807, on the farm at Unterlübbe nr. 16 in the Köhlterholz plat.


Johann Hermann Rodekopf (whose name had been Johann Hermann Peper until he changed= his name to the name of his wife because she was the owner of the farm) from Hilverdingsen (par of Unterlübbe) had been married three times and had= dies on April 20th, 1803, at the age of 62. He had 4 sons from his marriage on January 28th, 1759, to A. Marie Elis. Rodekopf, the heiress to the farm. The sons are mentioned in the church register as ̶= 0;at the present time all absent”. They were therefore not considered potential heirs to the farm. The second wife Anne Margrethe Vieland, whom he had married October 13th, 1796, had apparently remained childles= s. His daughter Caroline Wilhelmine Luise (born in Unterlübbe February 2<= sup>nd, 1802), born from his third marriage on June 26th, 1800, to Carol= ine Sophie Hahne, had already died on January 29th, 1805.=


Caroline Sophie Hahne was from Hamlin. She was the daughter of Anne Marie Elisabeth Lemke (born in Hamlin in 1722, died in Unterlübbe July 5th, 1804) and her third husband Johann Heinrich Andr. Hahne (died in Rothenuffl= en March 11th, 1793). A daughter from her first marriage to the cit= izen and brewer Wilhelm Bollmann in Hamlin had married the windmill operator Tim= m in Rothenufflen. It is to be supposed that the unusual marriage between the daughter of a middle class family from Hamlin, Caroline Sophie Hahne, and t= he farmer from Unterlübbe, Johann Hermann Rodekopf, had been arranged by Timm.


Figure 1; The married couple Eberhard Friedrich Gottlieb Peithmann and Marie Louise née Peper in Unterlübbe


Friedrich David Peithmann and Caroline Sophie née Hahne were married at home “because the bride was ill” and she expected to deliver very so= on. The couple had 2 children, who were born in Unterlübbe: Caroline Regine Sophie and Eberhard Friedrich Gottlieb.


Both siblings married half-siblings on October 16th, 1825. Caroline Regine Sophie (born in Unterlübbe February 7th, 1807, died = in Hilverdingsen February 12th, 1887)married Hermann Ernst Heinrich Peper (born in Hilverdingsen April 30th, 1800, dies there 1844),= son and heir of the farmer Joh. Ernst Heinrich Peper and his first wife An. Mar= . Elis. née Wiethop in Hilverdingsen (Unterlübbe nr. 9). At least 4 children were born from that marriage:


1. Hermann Reinhard Dietrich Wilhelm (born November 20th, 1826),

2. Friederike Wilhelmine Louise (born February 22nd, 1830, died February 1844),

3. Karoline Wilhelmine (born February 2nd, 1833, died June 13t= h, 1894) married name Huck,

4. Wilhelmine Friederice (born March 26th, 1837).=


Eberhard Friedrich Gottlieb Peithmann (born in Unterlübbe February 5th, 1809, died there January 5th, 1882)k, who was then only 16 years= old and the prospective heir of the farm, married Marie Louise Peper (born in Hilverdingsen December 4th, 1808, died in Unterlübbe Septem= ber 26th, 1889), also 16 years old and daughter of the farmer Joh. E= rnst Heinrich Peper and his second wife Christine Luise Charlotte née Sie= be in Hilverdingsen. Eberhard Friedrich Gottlieb’s mother Caroline Sophie née Hahne had died June 4th, 1824 (according to an entry = of her own in the church register of Bergkirchen). As Friedrich David did not marry again, the early marriage of his son brought a woman to the farm. The= law court in Minden gave Eberhard Friedrich Gottlieb permission to marry (venia actatis”). From 1827 the couple had 13 children (p. 108). Between April and August of = 1847 “Rodekopf nr. 16” was supervisor (=3Dmayor) in Unterlübbe.= This can only have been Friedrich David Peithmann. We do not know the reasons for his short term of office. It is possible that the 69-year-old had to resign because of old age or illness. Two and a half years later he died. His son Eberhard Friedrich Gottlieb exercised the office of supervisor from November 1861 until May 1867 (according to the registers of the public administratio= n in Hille).





Dissoluti= on of Manorial Privileges


Through his marriage, Friedrich David had become a Colon (=3Dtenant farmer) in Unterlübbe in the same year that Napoleon’s brother Jérome Bonaparte started his transitory rule in the newly fo= rmed Kingdom o= f Westphalia. A royal decree of 1808= gave personal freedom to the peasant farmers, but the landlords retained their feudal rights over the land itself.


The occupants of the Rodekopf farm at Unterlübbe nr. 16 had to pay tax to Benkhausen Manor, northeast of Alswede Parish in the former district of Lübbecke. At the time of Friedrich David’s wedding in 1807, Phil= ipp Klamor v. d. Bussche, called Münch, and after his death in 1808, his s= on, the “Imperial Russian Lieutenant Colonel” Georg Wilhelm v. d. Bussche, called Münch, appear as owners of the manor. In 1814, the col= onel sold Benkhausen to his brother Karl, who was also district administrator of Lübbecke from 1813 until 1838 (v. d. Horst 1894-98). These two brothers were the negotiating partners of Friedrich David and Eberhard Friedrich Gottlieb for 42 years until the farm was redeemed.


Sometimes there were differences = of opinion about the yearly rent payments to the landlord by the tenant (=3DColon), as the fo= llowing record (from 1812 at the Benkhausen Manor) shows (State Archives Münst= er, Benkhausen Dep. nr. 7341):


The following persons were present 1. Colonus Friedrich Rodkop (=3D Friedrich David  Peithmann) nr= . 16 in Unterlübbe and declared:

I possess 6.6 acres of land located=   in Ufflen Woods for  wh= ich must be paid yearly to Benkhausen Manor 7 Reichthtalers 10 Groschen and 8 Pfennigs (see note, p. 105) or 30 Francs 38 Centimes in pure gold. So far I have always paid this amount in gold, but&= nbsp; I believe myself to only be obligated to pay in paper money, and I reserve my rights. Moreover, 2 Groschen 8 Pfennigs or 39 Centimes were refu= nded to me each time to pay for my meals.

Read aloud, approved and signed

signed Rodekopf


Obviously Friedrich David Peithmann’s petition had no success = with Georg Wilhelm v. d. Bussche-Münch, for in the subsequent years the payments were always marked “gold” in the registers.=


In 1821 Friedrich David made an attempt to buy out his obligations to Benkhausen Manor. He sought the aid of his brother-in-law, Pastor Rösc= her in Lübbecke, who was married to his younger sister Caroline Friederike Wilhelmine. Certainly Friedrich David believed that the mediation by a respected person, who was more neutral in this matter and probably better k= nown to the landlord, would help to get his agreement. Pastor Röscher wrote this letter to Karl v. d. Bussche-Münch (State Archives Münster, Benkhausen Dep. nr. 7341):


Most Worthy Baron,

Highly-Honoured District Administrator,=

Gracious Lord!

A relative of mine, the Colon Rothekopf nr. 16 at Uffeln, is obliged to pay a yearly canon (=3Drent) of 7 Reichsthalers 12 Gr= oschen in gold from his land to your noble estate of Benckhausen. He wishes to buy= out this canon, and he ahas asked me to inquire of your worthiness whether you = will grant his wishes, and how much capital he would have to pay in this case? Requesting your esteemed reply, I remain respectfully

The most obedient servant of Your Worthiness, Roes= cher


Lübbecke, November 18th, 1821


(note by Baron v. d. Bussche-Münch:)

Pastor Röscher is to be informed that the sum= for the letter of release for Colon Rothkopf is fixed at 186 Reichsthalers 4 Groschen in gold.        =         B, Dec. 2nd, 1821


This request seems to have remained without success. Only 31 years l= ater was the farm at Unterlübbe nr. 16 exempted from the payments in the framework of a general reform of feudal obligations. Friedrich David Peithm= ann did not live to see that day, as he had died two years earlier, on February= 6th, 1850.


Following an edict from 1811 a so-called General Commission was set = up as a specialised administrative body for the “regulation of relations between landlords and peasants”. It was responsible for compensation former landlords for the loss of the feudal dues which the peasants owed as well as for the enclosure of common ground. a “special commissar̶= 1;, often a specialist or civil servant from the local administration, carried = out the process on the local level. According to a law of 1825 the general commissions – the one in Münster was responsible for Unterlü= ;bbe – set up district mediation authorities, consisting of the district administrator and two representatives from the district assembly, one each representing the landlords and the peasants. These authorities were charged with determining the appropriate compensation for the former landlords.


On August 19th, 1852, the Royal General Commission for Westphalia in Münster confirmed the redemption contract which had been signed on September 16th of the previous year between Baron v. d= . Bussche-Münch and Eberhard Friedrich Gottlieb Peithmann, the relevant parts of which are cited here (State Archives in Münster, Benkhausen, Dep. 2341):


Negotiated: Minden, September 16th, 1851


Between Baron von dem Bussche-Münch as the ow= ner o Benkhausen Manor and the Colon Eberhard Friedrich Gottlieb Peithmann nr. = 16 at Unterlübbe, holder of the so-called Rodekopf-Colonat, the following settlement has been concluded:


§ 1. On St. Michael’s Day (September 29= th) of each year the Colon Peithmann was required to pay 7

       Reichsth= alers 13 silver Groschen 4 Pfennigs in gold or 8 Reichsthalers 13 silver Groschen= 1

       Pfennig in currency to the respective owners of Benkhausen Manor, and, in return, was entitled to

       rece= ive 2 silver – Groschen and 4 Pfennigs for meals.

§ 2. the aforementioned payments and repaymen= ts are herewith cancelled.

§ 3. The value of the payments is higher than= the value of the counterpayments, and a reduction of the

   =     compensation payment on the basis of § 63 of the Compensation Law of March 2nd, 1850, is not

   =    requested. The remaining value of the payments after deduction of the value of the counter-

   =    payments or the full rent is shown in column 5 of the summary in § 4. The tenant discharges all

   =    obligations toward the full rent that is shown there by paying 18 times that amount in cash, and the

   =    landlord has made claim to his legal authorisation to ask for bonds in the amount of= 20 times the

   =    annual rent.

§ 4. The following summary chart shows the am= ount which the tenant has to pay as compensation

   =    capital and amounts, in bonds, and in cash from the Rentenbank Münster, to whi= ch the landlord is

   =    entitled= .

1.   &n= bsp;   nr. 1

2.   &n= bsp;   Name of tenant: Eberhard Friedrich Gottlieb Peithmann nr= . 16 – Unterlübbe

3.       Description= of the encumbered property:

       of t= he farm and homestead: nr. 16 Unterlübbe

       of t= he specially encumbered parcels: all properties of the farm<= /p>

4.   &n= bsp;   Volume and = page of the mortgage register: Vol. I page 47

5.   &n= bsp;   Amount of rent: 8 Reichsthalers 9 silver Groschen 9 Pfen= nigs

6.       Redemption = sum of 18 times this amount: 149 Reichsthalers 25 silver Groschen 6 Pfennigs

7.       Date on whi= ch the capital must be paid: April 1st or October 1st following the publication of the confirmed contract

8.       Of the compensation capital 148 ½ Reichsthalers will be paid to the state f= und for the repayment of debts

9.       The Rentenb= ank receives a yearly revenue from the state fund / 5% of item: 8/4 ½ percent of item: 10 / 7 Reichsthalers 12 silver Groschen 9 Pfennigs

The landlord receives:

10.   in bonds= : 165 Reichsthalers

11.   the rema= inder in cash of: 1 Reichsthaler 10 silver Groschen 6 Pfennigs<= /p>

12.   Landlord: Baron von dem Bussche-Münch at Benkhausen near Lübbecke

§ 5.  The rent cancelled by § 1 will be paid for the last time this y= ear on St.Michael’s Day in the 

         traditional way. From that date on until the payment of the compensa= tion capital the   Colon

         Peithmann will have to pay that proportion of the full rent mentione= d in § 4 item 5 which is due for

         that time directly to the landlord. And he will pay the sum mentione= d in § 4 item 6 to the State

         Cashier in Minden on April 1st or October 1st (whichever comes first) a= fter the date of the

         publication of the confirmed contract. At the same time the landlord will receive the sum

         mentioned in items 10. and 11. of § 4 as compensation. The Royal Government is expressly

         authorised by the landlord to force payment of the compensation capi= tal in case of deferred

         payment, including interest, through its commission.

§ 6. &n= bsp; The interested parties request and consent that the payments mention= ed in § 1 shall be deleted

         in the property and mortgage registers for the property concerned following the receipt by the

         State Cashier as soon as the compensation capital has been paid.

§ 7. &n= bsp; The costs of this contract shall be born by the landlord for one half and by the tenant for one

        =   half…The parties present request that a certified copy of this document be given to landlord and

        =   tenant, and they have approved this contract after it has been read aloud and they sign as

        =   follows.


1. Baron von dem Bussche Münch at Benkhausen


2. Colon Eberhard Friedrich Gottlieb Peithmann nr. 16: Unterlübbe



        =             &nb= sp;         =          a. u. s.

        =             &nb= sp;            =       signed Cunitz

        =             &nb= sp;            =       Member of Econ. Comm.


The details of how Eberhard Friedrich Gottlieb Peithmann managed to pay the high compensation sum are not known. In general the farmers received a loan from banks that had been set up especially for = this purpose. The compensation sums went into the till of the Prussian governmen= t.


Economic History

Property registers used for tax assessment in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, including those for the Peithmann homestead at Unterlübbe nr. 16, are kept in the State Archives of Detm= old. From them, we can get an idea of the size of the farm, the location of the different parcels  of land,  the way in which they were used as= well as their value, and thereby gain insight into the economic history of the f= arm. These registers were kept up to date and thus allow us a chronological orde= ring of all changes which took place.


On April 4th, 1831, “Friedrich Rodekopf nr. 16, residing at Unterlübbe” confirmed receipt of the following registers of the “Royal Land Registry Commission” of = the administrative district of Minden (State Archives in = Detmold, M5C, nr. 491):


Table 1:

plots and size of the buildings


nr.    name o= f the plot        =    type     &= nbsp; size      class               taxable net yield

        =             &nb= sp;            =             &nb= sp;            =   (a= cres)        =            (Thalers/Groschen/Pfennig)

1.      Unterlübberberg           brush       3.393   2            = ;    3   6    9

2.      Neue Feld      &nb= sp;            = field         = 0.934   1            = ;    7  26   7        =             &nb= sp;  

         same        &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;       field         = 0.467   2            = ;    3    7   7

3.      s= ame        &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;       field         = 3.086   1            = ;    26   2   1

4.      Neben Rodekops      = ;   field         = 5.556   1            = ;    46  28  1

         Garten        &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;    

5.      Unter Rodekops           fiel= d         = 1.193   1            = ;    10   2   6


6.      same        &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;       field         = 0.637   1            = ;    5   11  7

7.      same        &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;       field         = 2.095   1            = ;    17  20  11

8.      Unter Mansen Hofe      <= /span>field         = 1.391   1            = ;    36   7    3

9.      same        &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;       field         = 0.349   1            = ;    5   29   5

10.    same        &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;       field         = 4.290   1            = ;    36   7    3

      =    same        &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;       field         = 0.857   2            = ;    5   29   5

11.    Stallbr= ink        &= nbsp;           &nbs= p; field         = 1.863   1  &n= bsp;            = ; 15  22   1

      =    same        &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;       field         = 0.372   2            = ;    2   17  11

12.    Kö= hlterholz        &= nbsp;          pasture<= span style=3D'mso-tab-count:1'>    1.330   4   &= nbsp;            1     7  11

13.    same        &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;       garden     1.133   2            = ;    9   17   4

14.    same        &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;       farm-       0.541=    1            = ;    4   17   4

      =             &nb= sp;            =             &nb= sp; house

15.    same        &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;       orchard   0.353   1   &= nbsp;            2    29   8

16.    same        &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;       wood      0.376   1            = ;           25   1

17.    same        &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;       pasture    2.519   3   &= nbsp;            9    17   4

18.  &n= bsp; Ritterbruch        &= nbsp;          peat         = 3.525   1            = ;    6    21   1

19.    Köhlterbruch            =     pasture    2.260   2   &= nbsp;            14    9    8

20.    Am Pattwegen&n= bsp;            = ; field         = 0.684   1            = ;    5    23   6

21.    Diek Kämpen            &= nbsp;  field         = 2.038   1            = ;    17     6   5


total     &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;            &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;           41.24= 2        &= nbsp;          268  19  10


Classification of the buildings according to their rental value=

Köhlterholz nr. 16, house, taxable net yield: 9 Thalers



1 acre =3D 1.584 Prussian Morgen=

1 Thaler =3D 30 silver Groschen =3D 360 Pfennigs (= Prussia= 1821)

The “taxable net yield” for a parcel of land was calculated on the basis of the “Rates for taxable Plat Yields” (State Archives in Detmold, M5C, nr. 497). These rates depended on the way in which the land was used a= nd on the (quality) classes 1 – 5. For instance, the taxable yield for o= ne Prussian Morgen of field class 1 was estimated at 5 Thalers 10 silver Grosc= hen and for a field of the lowest quality (class 5) at 1 Thaler.  First class pasture was estimated = at 4 Thalers and first class woods at 1 Thaler 12 silver Groschen.


In the property register of 1866 (State Archives in Detmold,M5C, nr. 497) 32 parcels of land with a total size of 51.203 American acres and a “taxable net yield” of “333 Thalers 72/100” are mentioned (for the Peithmann/Rodekopf farm). The parcel under nr. 1 in the chart of 1831 is missing, but 11 pasture parcels in the Lübberholz plat are mentioned for the first time. These plots were probably added to the fa= rm after the common grounds had been split up into private property.


In the year 1908 the local government in Minden approved a plat reform for the following years in Unterlübbe, among other places. This so-called coup= ling was aimed at having the mostly small fields regrouped near the farms to whi= ch they belonged. At the end of this procedure Wilhelm Peithmann (1841 – 1919), son of Eberhard Friedrich Gottlieb and heir of the farm, received the new land registration document on April 4th, 1915. While the amo= unt of  land remained the same, the number of plots had been reduced to 11 (State Archives Detmold, M5C, nr. 29= 54):


Table 2:

Excerpt from the property register

Owner: Peithmann, Wilhel= m, Colon, Unterl&uum= l;bbe house nr. 16

nr.     name o= f the plot      &nb= sp;     type         = size        &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;    net yield

            =             &nb= sp;            =             &nb= sp;          (acres)        &= nbsp;           (T= halers 1/100)

1.      Köhlter Bruch        &= nbsp;      pasture    3.742            &= nbsp;          9   58

2.      Unter Mansen Hofe      field         = 20.47               = ;       99  77

3.      s= ame        &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;       field         = 22.83        &= nbsp;            106  24

4.      Köhlterholz        &= nbsp;          pasture<= span style=3D'mso-tab-count:1'>    2.88            =              9   12

5.      same        &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;       yard        3.282      &n= bsp;            = ;    .     .

6.      s= ame        &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;       garden     0.9789        &= nbsp;            .     .

7.      same &nbs= p;            &= nbsp;           &nbs= p; field         = 1.997    &n= bsp;            = ;      7   78

      =             &nb= sp;            =             &nb= sp; (garden)

8.      same&nbs= p;            &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;  field         = 2.46            &= nbsp;           7   99

9.      Köhlterholzwiesen        pasture    5.089      &= nbsp;              18  19

10.    Oben den  = ;            &n= bsp;      field         = 14.52                  = ;     50  15=    


11.    Ritterbruch&nb= sp;            =       pasture    5.77      &= nbsp;       =            2   23


total            =             &nb= sp;            =                &= nbsp; 84.03        &= nbsp;            311  32


annual property tax: 89 Marks 75Pfennigs


Figure 2 shows the old Rodekopf Farmhouse which Friedrich David Peithmann took over at his marriage. This old two-storey house must have had dimensions of 18 m by 22 m judging from the number of uprights. After membe= rs of the Peithmann families lived and worked in it for almost 7 decades, in o= nly served as a barn. It must have been in very bad shape. But after the enlargement of the farm and the improvement of farming methods, it was no longer sufficient to serve as a storage place for grain, straw, hay, etc. a= nd there were not enough stables for the animals. The new for-storey farmhouse (see figure 3) is 20 m wide and 40 m long. The inscription in the lintel re= ads:




NR. 16 BUILT IN 1876

Family Name – Farm Name


In the 19th century the name that was used for the members of the family on the farm Unterlübbe nr. 16 was usually not the family name Peithmann, but the farm’s name Rodekopf, which is still alive today. Keeping the name of the farm even after the family name has changed by marr= iage is an old custom of the Minden-Ravensberg area. Therefore Friedrich David’s predecessor on the Unterlübbe farm, Johann Hermann Peper, took the name of his wife A. Marie Elis. Rodekopf upon their wedding in 175= 9. In the same way Friedrich David Peithmann is called “Rodekopf” = or “Rodekopf né Peithmann” in the church registers and in t= he documents of the State Archives, although in this case his wife had a diffe= rent maiden name and no blood relation existed with the “Rodekopfs”.= The people around them simply continued to use the traditional farm name accord= ing to the old, unwritten rules.


Only in 1928 did a decree by the then Senior President of Westphalia, Ludwig Freiherr von Vincke, bring a legal regulation. It provided the right= for those who married into farms to add the name of the farm to their own names which had to be kept. The purchaser of a farm did not have this right, howe= ver. At the latest, by the middle of the last century, the name used for the Unterlübbe farm owners in all official files (e. g. property register, contracts with public authorities, etc.) is exclusively the name Peithmann.= In the church registers, though, the name Rodekopf is mentioned next to the entries concerning Eberhard Friedrich Gottlieb Peithmann and next to the bi= rth entries for his children. The father mentioned here is “Eberhard Friedrich Gottlieb Ober Rodekopf, Colon, also called Peithmann”.


Figure 2: The old Rodekopf farmhouse in Unterlübbe nr. 16


Figure 3: The house built in 1876 on the farm Unterlübbe nr. 16. In front are Eberhard      &nbs= p;            &= nbsp;     

             =    Peithmann’s son Wilhelm and his wife Karoline née Folle (third and second from <= o:p>

        =         the left) with their children Wilhelm (left), Friederike (fourth from the left),

        =         Ka= roline, Ludwig, Hermann, Fritz and Heinrich.



Eberhard PeithmannR= 17;s Children


Eberhard Friedrich Gottlieb Peithmann and Marie Luise Peper had 13 children:


1.   Friederike Wilhelmine  K a r o l i n e (b= orn September 27th, 1827), see below

2.   Ernst Heinrich<= span style=3D'mso-spacerun:yes'>  F r i e d r i c h  Eberhard (born May 28th, 1830), see below

3.   Karoline  L o u i s e  Wilhelmine (born March 13th, 1833)= , see below

4.   Friederike  W i l h e l m i n e  Christine (born January 29th<= /sup>, 1835), see below

5.   E r n s t  Ludwig Andreas (born November 2nd, 1836, died April 16th, 1916), married to Caroline Regine Wilhelm= ine Rieher on the farm at Südhemmern nr. 21 on July 1st, 1864 (= see Part I of this Chronicle, pp. 29 – 49),

6.   Eberhard Friedrich  H e r m a n n  (born December 27th, 18= 38, die May 19th, 1920) emigrated to Hoyleton<= /st1:City>, Illinois (USA) and married Luisa Schnak= e on May 19th, 1869

7.   daughter, stillborn September 9th, 1840,

8.   August Heinrich=   W i l h e l m (born August 29= th, 1841) inherited the farm (see p. 113)

9.   Eberhard  H e i n r i c h  Ludwig (born April 29th, 1844, died April 23rd, 1897), married Sophie Charlotte Weber née Siebe on September 21st, 1872, on the  farm nr. 16 at Frotheim (former di= strict of Lübbecke),

10.  F r i e d e r i k e  Luise Regine (born March 26th, 184= 6), see below

11.  Wilhelm  L u d w i g  Eberhard (born May 18th, 1848, died February 21st, 1920);

12.  C h r i s t i a n  Friedrich Ludwig (born March 22nd, 1850, died April 22nd, 1856);

13.  Eberhard Christian  F r i e d r i c h, “Frederick” (born January 24th, 1853, died Janu= ary 30th, 1934), emigrated to the USA (see Part I, pp. 51 – 60).


All sons and sons-in-law of Eberhard Peithmann became farmers in either Germany or the USA. Further articles are to = be written in this chronicle on Hermann, Heinrich and Ludwig and their descendants.


Karoline (born September 27th, 1827), on December 3rd, 1843, w= as married in Bergkirchen to Johann  H e r m a n n  Friedrich Wessel = (born November 24th, 1821, died August 14th, 1865) from Hilverdingsen (Unterlübbe nr. 15), son and heir of the late Colon Friedrich Wilhelm Wessel né Krughoff and his late wife Ag. Mar. Ilsa= b. Wessel. It is not known how many children were born during the first five y= ears of their marriage. On April 7th, 1869, their daughter, who had b= een born on September 29th, 1845, married the Colon Friedrich Wilhelm Kasten from the neighbouring farm at Eickhorst nr. 9. In the church registe= rs of Bergkirchen the births of the following children are registered in the y= ears 1849 until 1851:

Friedrich Wilhelm August Eberhard (born September 27th, 1849, died April 4= th, 1933),

Ernst Friedrich Hermann (born July 24th, 1851, died March 15th, 1852),

Friederice Marie Louise (born September 22nd, 1853, die June 6th, 1854),

Hermann Andreas Heinrich (born October 1st, 1855, died August 4th, 1859),

Caroline Marie  L o u i s e  (born September 6th, 18= 57) and

Regine Friederike Caroline (born March 29th, 1861).


When Hermann Wessel died of tuberculosis at the age of 44 he left his wife and 7 children not yet of age.


The eldest son Friedrich (born May 28th, 1830) was the fi= rst member of the family to emigrate to the USA. He joined a family by th= e name of Brink and followed them to the State of Illinois. Until his premature death on October 16th, 1851, he lived with the Brinks on their farm north= east of Nashville. There are contradictory reports on the cause of his death. Friedrich’s nephew Edgar Frederick Peithmann (1902&nbs= p; 1980, see Part I, pa. 59) described an accident in a letter addresse= d to Irvin Peithmann (1904 – 1981) in Chester, Illinois, in 1978: “D= id you know that my father Frederick P. was named after his older brother, who died here in Illinois before my father was born? It is said that he was exceptionally strong. When he was working for a mill one day he took on a s= tag, which had approached him full of curiosity. As it did not know men, Frederi= ck Peithmann was able to grab it by its antlers and to wrestle it to the ground. During = this wrestle there was no way to let it go without being gored. Frederick’s companion did not hav= e the courage to kill the animal during this time. Frederick suffered internal injuries an= d died a few days later.” He was buried on the Waldo Brink Farm in Hoyleton Township (North Prairie) where the Brinks also found their last resting place. The three graves are still there today.


Figure 4: The married couple Louis Huck and Louise née Peithm= ann in Hoyleton (Illinois,

        =         USA)


Louise (born March 13th, 1833, died May 27th, 1873) married Louis Huck (born in Rothenuffeln May 14th, 1827, d= ied July 21st, 1885) in Bergkirchen on March 22nd, 1849. Louis was the second son of Colon Heinrich Christian Huck and Sophie Marie Elisabeth née Meyer. Next to the wedding entry in the church registe= r is the remark that the couple intended to emigrate to the USA aft= er the wedding. The couple settled in Hoyleton Township (Washington County) in the State of Illinois as well= . Here in the North Prairie they started farming. In 1853 they received a land gra= nt, signed by President Pierce. Until about 1880 they purchased more and more farmland. They bought the plots from neighbouring farms as well as from the Illinois Central Railroad Company. The price varied from 4 to 36 US-$ per a= cre. They borrowed part of the money at 8 – 10 % interest. – The cou= ple had 9 children who were born in Hoyleton Township:


1.  Friedrich Wilhelm Lud= wig (born March 15th, 1852, died October 2nd, 1853),=

2.  Friedrich Henry  L o u i s (born January 10th<= /sup>, 1855, died June 3rd, 1943) married to Regina Herseman,

3.  John  H e n r y  (born February 24th, 18= 57, died August 1st, 1940) married to Wilhelmina Elizabeth Hake,

4.  Elisabeth (born March= 8th, 1859, died May 30th, 1943) married to Henry F. Dueker=

5.  John (born June 13th, 1861, died September 20th, 1943) married Emilie Nickles,

6.  Maria Luise (born Nov= ember 17th, 1863, died January 1st, 1865),

7.  Anna Carolina (born J= anuary 11th, 1866, died August 23rd, 1867),

8.  Lydia (born June 18th, 1868, died August 31st, 1927) married Henry J. Kleeman,

9.  Emma Martha (born Nov= ember 8th, 1870, died October 31st, 1872).


When Louis Huck died in 1885 he owned about 600 acres of farmland. T= he farm was split among the five children Louis, Henry, Elisabeth, John and Lydia i= n such a way that each one inherited about 120 acres. To this day, two of the farms still belong to descendants of Luis Huck and Louise née Peithmann.


5 years after Louise’ emigration Wilhelmine (born January 29th, 1835, died July 6th, 1910) followed her sister’s example in 1854. On August 9th, 1855, she married Friedrich W. Krughoff (bo= rn November 23rd, 1929, died January 1st, 1910) who originated from Rothenufflen and who had come to the United States as early as 1847/1848. Up to January 11th, 1857, the young couple lived with Friedrich’s parents. Then they moved into a blockhouse in Hoyleton Township, which was later replaced= by a brick house. Here they spent all their further lives,  and they bought almost 900 acres of farmland in pieces of 16 and 32 acres. The growth of wheat rendered the greatest output. Oats, corn and grass served as fodder for the horses, the cattle and the pigs. It was only after the introduction of modern methods of farming that beans and corn grew sufficiently well on the poor acid ground. – Friedrich Krughoff and Wilhelmine née Peithmann had 10 child= ren:


1.  Mary Martha (1856 = 211; 1928), married Henry E. Hoffmann,

2.  Elizabeth (1858 – 1918), married Charles L. Brink,

3.  Frederick W. (1861 – 1911), marri= ed Anna Bartelsmeyer and Martha Hake

4.  Anna W. (1863 – 1918), married William Elmers,

5.  Wilhelma Maria (1865 – 1951), married Louis Bernreuter,

6.  Louis Edward (1968 &#= 8211; 1936), married Anna Schlinger,

7.  Edward Henry (1871 &#= 8211; 1939), married Lydia Hake,

8.  Lydia Martha (1873 &#= 8211; 1963), married Frank Hake,

9.  Julius Henry (1878 &#= 8211; 1967), married Sarah Hake, and

10.  Albert Carl (1880 – 1953), married Millie Brink.


Figure 5: The couple Friedrich W. Krughoff and Wilhelmine née Peithmann in Hoyleton

        =         (Illinois, USA)


Friederike ( born March 26th, 1846, died July 1st, 1881) married= the heir Christian Heinrich Wittemeier on October 4th, 1867, on the = farm nr. 48 in Wittloge, part of Hille. The properties comprised about 60 Morgen= of fields and pasture. The couple had 6 children:


1.  Caroline Marie (born February 5th, 1868, died October 25th, 1869),

2.  Marie Wilhelmine Soph= ie (born November 11th, 1870, died November 28th, 1870),=

3.  Caroline Wilhelmine Friederike (born December 4th, 1871),

4.  Caroline Marie Luise = (born May 24th, 1874)

5.  Christian Heinrich (b= orn August, 22nd, 1876),

6.  Caroline Marie Sophie= (born February 23rd, 1879).




I thank the following relatives for their information, notes and photos: Debr= a Bartelsmeyer, Edward Huck and Irvin F. Krughoff (all USA) as well as Alwine Meyer (Enger), Lieselotte Peithmann (Hille-Unterlübbe), Heinrich Peithmann (Rostock), Hermann Peithmann sen. and jun. (Hille-Südhemmern) and Dr. Ludolf Peithmann (Hagen).












The Descendants of = Colon Wilhelm Peithmann

1841 – 1919 in Unterlübbe


August Heinrich Wilhelm Peithmann was born on August 8th, 1841, in Unterlübbe, as t= he eighth of 13 children of the Colon Eberhard Friedrich Gottlieb Peithmann (1= 809 – 1882) and his wife Marie Luise Peper (1808 – 1889). He inheri= ted the parental farm nr. 16 in Unterlübbe.


On January 28th, 1870, Wilhelm Peithmann married Marie Droste (born in Eickhorst J= une 28th, 1850, died January 12th, 1875). Two children were born in this marriage: Wilhelm (I.) and Marie. On November 9th, 1877, he remarried, this time with Marie Ka= roline Wilhelmine Folle (born in Rothenufflen February 2nd, 1856, died = May 25th, 1942), daughter of Colon Wilhelm Folle and his wife Marie Luise née Meyer. Wilhelm Peithmann had 8 children with her: Wilhelm (II.), Fritz, Karoline, Heinrich, Ludwig, Hermann, Friederike and August.


Figure 1: The couple Wilhelm Peithmann and Karoline née Folle with daughter Marie and son

        =        Wilhelm about 1880


Wilhelm was described by his children as a strict but basically rath= er good-natured and understanding father. The sons, daughters, and later the grandchildren, were allowed to use the meadow adjacent to the farmhouse as their playground on Sundays, together with boys and girls from the neighbourhood and from related families. In those times this concession to = the children was certainly an exception for the economically minded farmer. His sense of family also found expression in his will. In it he decreed that an= y of the children who, through no fault of their own, should fall upon hard times would be able to return to the parental farm.


Figure 2: Wilhelm Peithmann and Karoline née Folle with their children; from left: Marie

        =        (seated), Heinrich, Ludwig, Karoline, Fritz, Hermann, Wilhelm and Friederike

        =        (seated)


Wilhelm’s children often told of an event, which bears witness= to his and his father Eberhard’s strong will. Wilhelm had been nominated= as president of his church congregation. When the pastor heard of this he said: “I knew his father. Whatever he did not want, he did not do. I have no use for this man.”


Wilhelm died in Unterlübbe at the age of 78 on November 27= th, 1919. His second wife Karoline survived him by 23 years. She was an energet= ic, practical woman, who remained a tough person in her old age. Her grandchild= ren knew her as a resolute grandmother who had a strong influence on their upbringing. She knew many rules of life, and her advice was always apprecia= ted on the farm by the members of the family as well as farmhands.


Wilhelm (I.) =

born August 22nd, 1870, died December 30th, 18= 70









born October 3rd, 1871, died February 6th, 192= 4


Marie, the only surviving child from Wilhelm Peithmann’s marri= age to Marie Droste, married August Wiese (born December 28th, 1861, died February 6th, 1936), heir to a farm, on February 6th, 1891, in Südhemmern nr. 15 in the Minden district. He owned a farm with an area of 35 acres. The couple had 9 childr= en:

  1. Luise (born September 13th, 1891, died June 7th, 1974) marri= ed to Christian Volkmann,
  2. Marie (born February 1st, 1894, died March 2nd, 1972) marrie= d to Christian Schekelmann,
  3. Karoline (bo= rn May 27th, 1896, died May 2nd, 1973) married to Ludwig Meier,
  4. Heinrich (bo= rn October 10th, 1898), heir to the farm, married to Sophie Röthemeier,
  5. Sophie (born= May 11th, 1901) married to August Peper,
  6. Friederike (= born October 28th, 1903) married to Heinrich Siebeking,
  7. August (born= May 9th, 1906) municipal architect in Minden, married to Erna Finke,
  8. Frieda (born= March 7th, 1910, died April 3rd, 1938) married to Wilh= elm Pries, and
  9. Minna (born February 12th, 1913) married to Wilhelm Brinkmann.


Wilhelm (II.)=

born July 29th, 1879, died May 6th, 1968<= /o:p>


Wilhelm was the eldest son from the second marriage of Wilhelm Peith= mann, with Karoline née Folle. After having attended elementary school in Unterlübbe, he started to work on the parental farm. From 1897 until t= he end of 1899 he served in the “4th Driving Battery of the 2= nd Westphalian Field Artillery Regiment nr. 22” in Minden. He used to enjoy showing a plaq= ue later with the inscription “The Last Reserve of the 19th Century”, which he and his comrades had received upon being discharged from the military.


Figure 3: Tilling the fields on the Peithmann farm during World War = I, when all 5 sons of Wilhelm had been drafted, from the left: one of the two French prisoners of war, Friederike Peithmann and August Wessel, grandson of Wilhelm’s eldest sister Karoline (see p. 108), who helped on his great-uncle’s farm for one year before being drafted in 1917. In the background the Rodekopf farmhouse can be seen, which was torn down in 1922.=


Figure 4: The couple August Wiese and Marie née Peithmann in Südhemmern


On December 8th, 1907, Wilhelm married Karoline  W i l h e l m i n e  Friederike Münnich (born in Rothenuffeln August 20th, 1889, died in Wimmer, March 24th<= /sup>, 1971), daughter of the new farmer Friedrich Münnich and his wife Wilhelmine Rüter in Unterlübbe. At that time, it was possible for= the sons of farmers who were not entitled to inherit the farm to acquire  homestead in what was then the Pru= ssian province of Posen. Wilhelm and Wilhelmine Peit= hmann made use of this provision and took over a farm of 35 acres in Gontsch, district of Znin, on January 1st, 1908. Only young farmers from = Westphalia had settled in this village.<= /span>


Wilhelm participated in World War I from the beginning on he Eastern= as well as on the Western Front. For 18 months he was dispatched to an economic unit; in 1916 he became a non-commissioned officer and in 1918 he became sergeant. In 1917 he received the Iron Cross 2nd Class. Agribusi= ness in Posen was mainly in the hands of German agricultural c-operatives. Until April, 1926, Wilhelm was a member of the board of  directors of the local dairy co-operative, the German Grain Storage Co-operative, and the livestock marketing co-operative of Janowitz. When he retired, these enterprises acknowledged the faithful fulfilment of the co-operative duties and the exemplary conduct in positions of honour by the “extremely efficient farmer”.


After the war, the Allies determined in the Treaty of Versailles on = June 28th, 1918, that Germany had to cede the province<= /st1:PlaceType> of Posen to the new= ly created Polish state. Only settlers who had moved into the province before = 1908 were able to obtain Polish citizenship. Wilhelm was therefore now considere= d as a German in Poland, and he was not allowed to own or purchase land. After his farm had been expropriated in March, 1926, he lived with a neighbour and friend for three months before mowing in with his brother Hermann on the parental farm in Unterlübbe in July of 1926. – The children Wilhelmine, Wilhelm, Ludwig, Marie, Frieda and Hermann had been born in Gontsch. Herbert was born later in Silesia<= /st1:State>.


Wilhelm now looked for a new farm in Germany. Plans to take over t= he Hüffe Estate in the former district of Lübbecke, or a property in Schleswig-Holstein, failed. Thus, with financial support from his brother Hermann, he purchased land in the settlement of Grenzvorwerk in the distric= t of Militsch, about 35 miles north of Breslau, in Silesia.


However, when in March 1927 the family took over the farm with about= 46 acres they discovered great deficiencies in the buildings, the fields and t= he pasture – just as the other settlers did on their farms. Without the energetic help of his four adult children, the new start in Silesia would not have been possible. = In vain he attempted to have the settlers’ co-operative remedy the bad conditions. The settlers in Grenzvorwerk elected Wilhelm Peithmann to be th= eir spokesperson, and with the support of the local association of farmers they= now tried to inform the public through articles in the newspapers of all politi= cal tendencies. They also drew the attention of the district administration and= of the churches, both Catholic and Protestant, to the grave deficiencies. Thereupon, governmental commissions, representatives of the churches, as we= ll as members of parliament from various parties, travelled to the settlement Grenzvorwerk. The problems of the new settlers were even mentioned in a spe= ech given in parliament. But only in 1935/36 did the authorities reduce the purchase price of the farms from 43.500 to 34.000 Marks. Additionally, the buildings were refurbished.


Figure 6: The so-called “Heimatschein” (=3Dcertificate of citizenship) of the couple Wilhelm

        =         Peithmann and Wilhelmine Peithmann née Münnich, issued i= n Minden in 1922 by=

        =         the regional administrator for their residency in Gontsch (district = of Znin), which

        =         had become Polish


Wilhelm Peithmann grew mainly grain in Grenzvorwerk; on 7 to 10 acre= s of fields he grew starch potatoes. He sold the grain to the main agricultural co-operative in neighbouring Trachenberg and the potatoes to a flake factor= y.


World War II put an end to this period of a successful new start. In January 1945 Wilhelm Peithmann with his family had to leave what had become their third home. He described his flight in details in a diary, from which= we are citing excerpts here:


January 21st (Sunday): At half past sev= en in the morning, a convoy started the flight from the Russian army with 9 wa= gons from Grenzvorwerk. On the first day it covered about 27 miles to Wahlau.


January 22nd: We continued to Parchwitz, via Leubis, about 10 miles north-east of Liegnitz.


January 23rd: We got as far as Koischwi= tz near Liegnitz, where we stopped for 3 days, for men and animals were exhaus= ted, since it was a hard winter with snow and ice.


January 26th: We separated from the res= t of the wagon train together with our daughter Frieda an her 3 children in orde= r to seek shelter on the arm of our daughter-in-law Gerda in Herzogswaldau (abou= t 3 miles south-east of Jauer), for we hoped that the Russians would be stopped= at the river Oder. We stayed with our daughter-in-law until February 13th, when we were overrun by the Russians in the morning. The events of the following days among the Russians cannot be described.


February 15th: In the early morning we = were liberated by a reconnaissance division of German tanks, we continued our fl= ight quickly in the direction of Hirschberg (Sudeten Mountains). On this day we got as far as Ketschdorf.


February 16th: The young women and chil= dren were transported by freight train to Hirschberg. We (=3DWilhelm and his wif= e) stayed alone.


February 20th: We had to sell our horses and wagon, because we could not find any fodder; the wagon no longer had brakes, and the horses needed horseshoes.


February 21st: Soldiers took us to Hirschberg in their trucks


February 22nd: We got to Polaun on a special train.


February 23rd: We rode to Taunwald near= Dux (Erzgebirge). Here we shipped our luggag= e to brother Hermann at Unterlübbe (it never arrived).


February 24th: We continued by train to= Hof in Bavaria, via Komotau. On


February 25th: we continued via Plauen, Reichenbach, Leipzig to Halle (Saale) and on


February 26th: via Dessau, Zerbst, Magdeburg and Hannover to Minden.


February 27th: At half past three in the morning our flight ended at brother Hermann’s at Unterlübbe.


At first, Wilhelm and Wilhelmine Peithmann found shelter with the brother on the parental farm at Unterlübbe. In the wi= nter of 1962 the couple moved to Wimmer near Bad Essen, where the families of th= eir sons Hermann and Ludwig had settled. Here they lived off their pension paid= by the system of financial compensation for losses suffered during World War II (financed by home owners in the western part of Germany). During these years Wilhelm liked to read from many books. Above all he devoted himself to his favourite literature, books about Frederick the Great and the works of Fritz Reuter.


For many occasions and circumstances Wilhelm Peithmann knew fitting remarks, marginalia, poems and Biblical quotations. One of the apt and dryly satirical poems from his rural days went:


He who sells his good milk

and drinks the bad with his children,

he who sells butter

and eats margarine himself,

he who buys expensive fodder from abroad

and loves to complain afterwards,

that he does not get a decent price for his grain-=

 is a stupid cow with no horns.


In 1967 the married couple could celebrate the rare “diamond anniversary” (=3D 60 years of marriage). Wilhelm had suffered a strok= e on December 28th, 1966, but he did not survive a second stroke on M= ay 6th, 1968. His wife Wilhelmine followed him to the grave on March 24th, 1971. Both were buried on the cemetery in Lintorf near Bad Essen.


Wilhelm Peithmann’s eldest daughter Wilhelmine (born June 6th, 1908) spent her first six years with her grandparents at Unterlübbe. On April 28th, 1= 933, she married the then farmer Artur Scholz (born August 3rd, 1905, died in Langendamm October 16th, 1978) in Deutscheich (district = of Militsch, Silesia= ). In 1945 the family fled from there to Gadesbünden near Nienburg via Sudeten Mountains. From 1951 she lived in = Nienburg and in 1971 she moved to the house that she had purchased in Langendamm, a = part of Nienburg. 4 children were born from her marriage.


1. Eleonore (born October 19th, 1933) married to Walter Mesenbrink in Nienburg,

2. Werner (born May 13th, 1937) custodian in Nienburg, married to Almuth Ulrich,

3. Siegfried (born June 27th, 1942, died in Deutscheich J= uly 11th, 1942) and

4. Hubertus (born October 20th, 1943) senior inspector at= the Labour Office in Nienburg,

    married to Renate Brauer.


Wilhelm (born June 18th, 1909) went into business and worked in a shop selling musical instruments and radios in Herrnstadt (district of Guhr= au, Silesia). He mar= ried Ruth Scholz from Herrnstadt in 1940. They had no children. Wilhelm has been missing in action since 1944 on the central zone of the front in Russia = near Tcherkassy. His wife died in B= amberg in 1946.


Ludwig (born January 24th, 1912 died in Wimmer January 21s= t, 1980) became a farmer and worked with his father on the settler’s far= m in Grenzvorwerk. At the outbreak of World War II he was drafted as a soldier. = On December 26th, 1941, he was married to Gerda Scholz (born in Herzogswaldau May 30th, 1919) in Herzogswaldau (district of Jaue= r). His wife worked on her farm together with her two sisters. After his return from captivity Ludwig came to Unterlübbe, and he had his wife and daug= hter Renate (born July 2nd, 1943) join him there. Until 1953 the fami= ly lived in Frotheim (former district of Lübbecke), where Ludwig learnt t= he trace of masonry. Together with his brother Hermann, he built a house in Wimmer, where he lived until his death. Ludwig liked to play the piano, the accordion, and later the organ during his free time.


Marie (born October 17th, 1913) at first helped her parents on their farm in Grenzvorwerk. On July 2nd, 1936, she married a technical inspector of the Imperial Railway, Herbert Stamke (born in Trachenberg August 23rd, 1911, die in Löhne May 11th, 1948). The family lived in Gellendorf-Stroppen (Sile= sia) from 1936 until 1938 and in Obernigk in the Cat Mountains  until 1945. She fled to Westphalia in January 1945 and has been living in Löhne (district of Herford) since September 1945. The couple had 3 children.


1. Ingrid (born February 6th, 1939) married to Ingo Dupke, ship’s captain in Kappel (Schlei),

2. Karin (born July 1st, 1941) married Manfred Vogt, tax consultant in Herford,

3. Heidrun (born May 24th, 1943) married to Heinz Dresche= r, designer in Munich= .


Frieda (born September 30th, 1920) also worked on the parental f= arm in Grenzvorwerk until her marriage. On October 26th, 1940, she w= ed the police chief Andreas Guggenberger (born in Unteraltenbernheim September= 21st, 1915) in Korsenz (district of Militsch), and they lived in Rawitsch until 1= 945, about 2 miles from Grenzvorwerk, east of the Polish-German border. She fled from there together with her brother Ludwig’s wife and her sisters fi= rst to the Sudeten Mountains, where they were expelle= d by the Czechs and transported back to Herzogswaldau. About the middle of August 1945 Frieda and her children reached Unterlübbe, from where she moved = to Bielefeld in Sept= ember. In 1963 the family moved into their own house here. Andreas Guggenberger and Frieda Peithmann had 3 children.


1. Warmund (born in Trachenberg November 27th, 1941), pol= ice chief in Braunschweig,

     mar= ried first to Lieselotte Dülker and later to Carola Poppe,

2. Manfred (born in Trachenberg October 18th, 1943, died = in Bielefeld Septemb= er  29th, 1946)<= /span>

3. Heidemarie (born in = Bielefeld December 17th, 1949) married first to Manfred Abel and

    later to = Walter Müller, businessman in Lemgo.


Hermann (born November 22nd, 1921) spent his youth on the farm in Grenzvorwerk and took part in World War II in several European countries af= ter June 1940. He was injured three times, and he was decorated with the Iron Cross. On July 10th, 1947, he married Marianne Welcke (born Marc= h 14th, 1922) in Wimmer (former district of Wittlage), who was heir to a farm. She = took a very active part in the genealogical research concerning the Peithmann families, especially in the Osnabrück area. Hermann holds official pos= ts in addition to working on the farm. Among other things he was juror at the court in Osnabrück for four years and since 1976 he has been township trustee of the consolidated community of Bad Essen. – On August 10th, 1948, their daughter Heidrun was born. She married the high school teacher Helmut Spieker (born September 29th, 1946) on November 8th<= /sup>, 1968, and on October 31st, 1980, in a second marriage the archiv= ist Dr. Christoph Battenberg (born in Erbach in Odenwald, September 2nd, 1947). She has a son, Stefan (born in Osnabrück June 6th, 1969).


Wilhelm’s youngest son Herbert (born June 9th, 1928, died September 9th, 1929) died = as an infant in Grenzvorwerk.




( born August 27th, 1881, died 1914)


Fritz followed the example of his elder brother Wilhelm and also took over a homestead near Gontsch in the district of Znin= in the Prussian province of Posen. He was ma= rried to Marie Burmeister and had one daughter, Erna, who was born in 1914. Fritz= has been missing in action in the East since 1914. His daughter visited the far= m of her grandparents in Unterlübbe about 1940; but after that there is no trace of her or her mother in her place of birth, which had become Polish.<= o:p>



born August 3rd, 1883, died September 9th, 196= 4


After leaving school Karoline worked in agriculture. She married the farm owner Heinrich Bekemeyer (born February 7th, 1881, died May= 29th, 1950) in Unterlübbe nr. 13 in the district of Minden on May 23rd<= /sup>, 1913. The latter served with the “2nd Guard Regiment on Foot” in Berlin. When Heinrich took part in World War I from 1914 until 1918, Karoline manag= ed the farm by herself. The couple had 5 children.


1. Rudolf (born April 3rd, 1914, die February 6th, 1937), sailor

2. Hermann (born July 25th, 1918), industrial manager in Oberlübbe, married to Anneliese

    Böin= g

3. Heinrich (born May 11th, 1920, died March 28th, 1967), livestock dealer, married to

    Hildegard Schmidt

4. Lina (born March 13th, 1922,), inherited the farm, mar= ried to Erich Heidenreich, and

5. Alwine (born September 10th, 1923), banker, married to Karl-Heinz Lenger.



Figure 10: The Peithmann family in Unterlübbe on the occasion o= f a furlough of their

        =           son-in-law Bekemeyer in 1915; from the left, standing: Friederike Peithmann,

        =           Li= na Peithmann née Ostermeier and Heinrich Bekemeyer; sitting: Karoline

        =           Peithmann née Folle, Wilhelm Peithmann and Karoline Bekemeyer née Peith-

        =           mann with son Rudolf



born June 16th, 1885, died March 8th, 1958


Heinrich became a farmer. On July 20th, 1920, he married Sophie Quade (born May 15th, 1888, died March 19th, 1945) on the f= arm nr. 24 in Frotheim in the former district of Lübbecke. 58 acres belong= ed to the Quade farm. His crippled wife found a devoted husband in Heinrich Peithmann. He actively supported his younger brother Ludwig in the Ludendor= ff movement. The couple had two daughters : Lina and Elfriede.


Lina (born November 16th, 1924) married Kurt Twiehoff (born November 16th, 1924) on June 29th, 1946, in Gelsenkirchen. Th= e couple has two sons:


1. Reimund (born in Frotheim July 29th, 1946) surveying engineer, married to Renate Gursky,

2. Helmut (born in Gels= enkirchen March 28th, 1949) salesman, married to Marion Möller.<= /o:p>


Elfriede (born July 9th, 1926) inherited her parents’ farm.= She married Wilhelm Beckschewe (born August 2nd, 1933) on May 27th, 1955 and had 3 children:


1. Ortwin (born December 10th, 1955), mechanical engineer= ,

2. Dagmar (born January 5th, 1957), employee, and

3. Detlef (born April 11th, 1962), apprentice businessman= .



born August 21st, 1887, died May 13th, 1960


The only one of Wilhelm Peithmann’s sons who= did not become a farmer was Ludwig (“Louis”). After he had excelled with very good grades during elementary school, his parents sent him to a preparatory school and to the teacher’s training college in Petershag= en near Minden. During this time he devoted himself especially to scientific studies. Thus = he started a large collection of insects, which he later donated to the colleg= e.


From 1910 until 1911 Ludwig served with the second marine battalion = in Kiel. In Flanders he participated in the fights around Ypern= an in the positional combats in the Yser-area. In 1915 he became a reserve lieutenant, and the same year he received the Iron Cross 2nd Cla= ss, and in 1918 the Iron Cross 1st Class.


Following his education and his military service, Ludwig held the position of second teacher in Blasheim, in the former district of Lübb= ecke. When the new school in Blasheim-Masch was inaugurated in April 1914, he was doted with that post. In addition to his professional activities, Ludwig participated in the creation of a purchasing and selling co-operative in Blasheim and furthered the development of German black-and-white cattle breeding in the Westphalian breeding book society.


In 1922 Ludwig asked the district government of Minden to grant him sabbatical leave to enable him to take a lease together with a= Mr. Schubert on the estate of General von Mutius in Gellenau near Bad Kudowa in= Silesia. In 1924= he took over the management of the estates of the Count of  Dohna in Sagan (Silesia) and lived on the Dohna estate= in Johnsdorf.


When in 1926 his sabbatical leave as a teacher had come to an end Lu= dwig returned to his school service in view of the very uncertain economic situa= tion at the time, so that he would not have to renounce his acquired rights as a civil servant. Ludwig became a teacher in the one-room school in Seelenfeld near Loccum. Ludwig enjoyed life in this village. The farmers trusted him because he was always there to give them advice or a helping had as well as because he provided practical training for their children after they comple= ted their schooling. He also had a close relationship to those Seelenfelders who went to sea on the fish trawlers and on herring luggers and whose cosmopoli= tan attitudes he valued.


During his time in Seelenfeld Ludwig became a member of the “Tannenberg Alliance”, a philosophical-ideological movement, wh= ich had been initiated by General Ludendorff ad his wife Mathilde. Ludwig participated enthusiastically in the “Tannenberg Alliance” as a speaker at their meetings and as leader of educational seminars in all part= s of Germany<= /st1:country-region>. The tragic death of a friend of his, a practising Catholic and father of 6 children, had raised doubts in him concerning the existence of a personal G= od. although he had been a very faithful Christian in the beginning. As he refu= sed to teach scripture in his one-room school, he was transferred by the Minden government= – against the express will of the Seelenfelders – to a bigger grade sch= ool in  Enger (district of Herford= ).


The Third Reich did not met with his approval. Therefore, he was for= ced to retire as early as 1935. Following this, together with a Mr. Dahl, whom = he had met on one of his many series of lectures, he founded a company for the production of measuring instruments. The outbreak of World War II put an en= d to the expansion of this firm. In 1941 he began producing armament components,= and after the end of the war he manufactured household appliances for the Dr. Oetker company in Bielefeld. He managed the “Ludwig Peithmann KG”, which moved into its own production facilities in 1953, until his death in 1960.


Ludwig Peithmann was popular both with his pupils as well as later w= ith his workers. He was a politically and ideologically dedicated personality, = who consciously broke with many traditional customs and habits and who had not = only a great number of like-minded friends, but understandably bitter opponents = as well.


In Ennigloh, on June 19th, 1915, Ludwig married Lina Ostermeier (born July 2nd, 1893, died September 24th, 1938), daughter of the future grocer Hermann Ostermeier  in Spradow and his wife Ilsabein E= bmeier. Two sons, Ludolf and Ortwin, were born t the couple. On August 20th, 1955, he married Paula Kipp (born in Ennigloh Aril 22nd, 1899, d= ied July 11th, 1980), a cousin of his first wife. She had been worki= ng in the household of the family as early as during their stay in Silesia. Ludwig = was laid to rest in the ancestral cemetery for followers of Ludendorff in Seelenfeld, which he and like-minded friends in Seelenfeld had founded.


Figure 12: Ludwig Peithmann and Lina née Ostermeier and their sons Ortwin (left) and

        =          Ludolf in Seelenfeld


The eldest son Ludolf (= born in Spradow December 31st, 1916) graduated from high school in Bünde. At that time it was necessary to do labour service in order to = be allowed into university. After his compulsory military service from 1936 to 1938 and an additional year as reserve officer cadet, World War II broke ou= t. Ludolf participated in the battles in the West as well as in the East ̵= 1; finally as commander or a battalion. Before he was wounded and taken prison= er in Holland, he had been chief of a training corps in Denmark, following his first wound in the East. Ludolf studied mechanical engineering from 1947 until 1951 at the Technical College in Hannover. Subsequently he was assistant lecturer at the local = Institute of Machin= e Tools. In 1955 he received a doctorate of engineering with distinction in Hannover; his thesis was titled “Contribution= s to the shaping of die milling cutters for milling drop forges”. In that = same year he started in a leading function with Schmiedag AG in Hagen. He declined an offer to become a university professor, and in 1959 he became the technical director of Demag GmbH in Wetter/Ruhr, and from 1975 until 1978 he was General Manager of Mannesmann Demag Fördertechnik, a company with 9.000 workers. Ludolf is considered to be one of the fathers of modern warehouse technology, in which world-renowned automatic transport vehicles move between shelves. – On March 20th, 1943, Ludolf married Erna Siekmann (born in Mennighüffen in the district of Herford, January 17th, 1922), daughter of the furniture producer August Siekmann in Löhne. The couple had three children: Gudrun, Ortwin and U= te.


Gudrun (born in Hävern October 28th, 1944)studied law from = 1964 until 1970 at the universities of Munich, = Berlin and Marburg= and took an international course on European integration in Amsterdam. She was attachée at t= he International Chamber of Commerce in Paris= and is now working as a lawyer for a bank in Cologne. On October 12th, 1973, she married the electrical engineer Hellm= ut Wilde (born in Honau near Reutlingen Decem= ber 26th, 1944), manager of an American measuring company in Munich. Their two sons Max Philipp and Andreas were born in Bergisch Gladbach, where the family lives, on July 2nd, 1978, and August 7th, 1980.


Ortwin (born in Valdorf June 4th, 1946) studied mechanical engineering in Hannover from 1968 until 1969 and then regional planning in = Dortmund from 196= 9 until 1973. He is a regional planning assistant in the Ministry of the Interior of Lower Saxony in Hannover. On July 23rd, 1971, he married the pharmacist Barbara Schmidt (born in Hagen April 3rd, 1948). The = couple has two adopted children: Marcel (born in Bremerhaven= March 26th, 1975) and Nanette (born in Hamburg February 10th, 1976= ). They live in Hannover.=


Ute (born in Hannover December 9th, 1952) studied business administration in Aachen and Mannheim from 1971 until 1977. Today sh= e is the marketing director and proprietor of the “Ludwig Peithmann KGR= 21;. On November 28th, 1980, she married Günter Koch, MBA (born = in Herford November 12th, 1951), comptroller= for the European subsidiaries of “Nixdorf Computers AG” in Paderborn. Their = son Lutz was born in Herford on January 13th, 1983.


Ludwig Peithmann’s younger son Ortwin (born in Blasheim May 27th, 1919, died Januar= y 24th, 1944) intended to become a flight captain after graduating from Bünde High School in 1938. Following his labour service he volunteered for the air force and took a course for pilot= s in 1940 and 1941. During World War II he lost his life as a pilot on the Easte= rn front. His plane had been taken into the workshop for repairs after he had participated in a flight against the enemy over the = Black Sea as an escort for a bomber formation. During the subsequent test flight he crashed from low eight about 5 miles east of Odessa-Dalnik airfield.


Figure 13: Ortwin Peithmann







born June 18th, 1890, died September 26th, 197= 2


Wilhelm’s youngest son Hermann inherited the farm in Unterlübbe nr. 16. Immediately after graduating from school, he began helping his father with the farm. In World War I he took part in the French Campaign.


His regimental comrade from the “58ers” in Minden, the Head Master of the blacksmiths’ guild, Heinrich Langenkämper, handed down this epis= ode from World War I, in which Hermann Peithmann showed quickwittedness and unshakeable humour:


“After the fall of Liège we had to rush to the aid of t= he Commanding General of the Cavalry, von Kluck, in fast marches. With this ar= my he had advanced to the area close to Paris, but had been beaten back, and needed help. Although we were moving at a for= ced march the main road to Paris was overflowing with troops, and we came to a halt quite often. I sat next = to the cavalryman Peithmann on the swank (a two-wheel cart from which the guns were hung). Suddenly a major general and his staff showed up next to us. As= his horse could not trot in this crowd he called to one of our drivers: “= Move over to the side!” That was impossible since infantry was also mowing= forward at a cracking pace in the ditches. On both sides of the road there were big trees. On the right side of the road there was artillery and on the left si= de were various cavalry men trotting along. In reaction to the general’s order to move over to the side (which was simply impossible because of the trees) our cavalry man Peithmann said: “That is not possible, Mr. General, Sir!” –The General: “If you do not move farther = to the side, I shall shoot you off your horse!” Hermann Peithmann: ̶= 0;And if Mr. General shoots me from my horse, I can still not move farther to the side!” A furious look was the answer from the general; he spurred his horse and jumped over the carriage. His staff had to follow him in like manner.”


Figure 14: Hermann Peithmann and Friederike née Riechmann in Unterlübbe on their golden

        =          wedding anniversary


On April 15th, 120, Hermann marri= ed Friederike Riechmann (born February 18th, 1896), daughter of the Colon Christian Riechmann and his wife Karoline von Behren in Südhemme= rn. Hermann’s father had died the previous year. Both spouses invested a = lot of love for agriculture into the farm which they increased to about 68 acre= s by buying additional land. Hermann is one of the founders of the savings bank = in Unterlübbe. Until old age he was a well-respected man in the village w= hom people often asked for advice. He died at the age of 82 years in the family= of his daughter in Enger, where he had gone to live during the last weeks of h= is life because of severe heart trouble.


Six children were born to Hermann Peithmann = and Friederike née Riechmann: Rudolf, Alwine, Hermann, Erna, Ludwig and Willi. But the family happiness was soon overcast by shadows of illness and war.


Hermann’s eldest son Rudolf (born April 15th, died December 12th, 1943) graduated from high school in Minden in April 1939 – the last graduation in peacetime. His intention to st= udy forestry was foiled. First he had to do labour service and participated in = the erection of the so-called Siegfried Line (West Wall) near Zweibrücken.= Subsequently he was drafted into the army. When World War II broke out he took part in t= he French Campaign; later he was sent to West Prussia. At the age of 22 he fell near Vitebsk on the Volga.


Figure 15: Rudolf Peithmann


Figure 16: Rudolf Peithmann’s grave ne= ar Vitebsk on the Volga


Alwine (born May 4th, 1922) worked in her father’s household and farm until her 29th year. During the absence of her two brothers at the time of World War II, she was the only h= elp for her parents. On July 22nd, 1951, she married the physician Roland Meyer (born January 8th, 1914) in Enger, son of Dr. Paul Meyer and his wife Helene née Thomin. The couple had four children:<= o:p>


1. Ulrike (born June 29th, 1952), physician at the Universi= ty of Kiel,=

2. Gernot (born May 21st, 1954) p= hysician at the Medical School in Aachen,

3. Dietrich (born August 26th, 19= 55), law student in Kiel, and

4. Holger (born September 20th, 1= 964) about to graduate from high school.


Hermann (born January 6th, 1924, died December = 30th, 1968), as the youngest son, inherited the paternal farm in Unterlübbe = nr. 16. Immediately after graduating from school  in Minden at the top of his class he was drafted for his military service. Towards the end of the war he was taken prisoner of war by the Russians near König= sberg. Until late 1948 he spent cruel years of captivity in Siberia, which destroyed his health and led to his early death.


On October 28t, 1955, Hermann married Liesel= otte Meyer (born October 10th, 1934), daughter of the farmer Ludwig M= eyer and his wife née Bruning from the farm Unterlübbe nr. 2. Four children came out of this marriage:


1. Rudolf (born May 27th, 1956), police officer in Cologne,

2. Eberhard (born January 7th, 19= 58), student of German and history in Bielefeld,

3. Gudrun (born May 17th, 1960), medical student in Kiel, and

4. Anke (born October 13th, 1962), medical student in Cologne= .


Hermann invested all his remaining energy in= his family and farm. During his free time he devoted himself to the nature of h= is homeland, especially the birds. While still in grade school, his teacher had called him “the natural scientist Herman Peithmann”. He became = an expert on birds of prey and the birds in the Bastau marshes. Hermann died at the age of 44, leaving behind his wife and children, as well as his parents= .


Erna (born September 3rd, 1925, died June 16th, 19= 43) and Ludwig (born May 25th= , 1927, died September 13th, 1935) died of effects of polio. Willi (born July 9th, = 1929, died February 21st, 1930) died as an infant.



born December 20th, 1892, died November 28th, 1965


Friederike grew up as the baby of the family among many brothers and sisters. She was unable to realise her wish to beco= me a teacher. When her brothers went to World War I she had to take care of the parental farm. On April 3rd, 1918, she married the then deputy officer August Adam (born in Lieme/Lippe March 13th, 1889, died August 20th, 1968). The couple had met through Friederike’s brother Hermann, who did his military service with August Adam in the field artillery regiment nr. 58 in the Minden barracks. After World War I in the family lived in Minden and Höxter, where August Dam worked in the financial and city administration. In June 1928 he got a post with the financial administration in Bielefeld; in this city the family built their own home in 1929. In the thirties August Adam was a follower of the Ludendorff movement, to which his wife adhered as well. – During World War II Friederike proved her courage when she extinguished many firebombs in their house in Fröbelstr., which otherw= ise would have gone up in flames. – August Adam and Friederike Peithmann = had two sons: Herbert and Wilfried. Herbert (born in Mind= en August 25th, 1929), student of law in Göttingen, was killed= in action on August 19th, 1943 as a lieutenant and pilot in Russia. Wilfried (born in Höxter September 15th, 1925) married to Christina Blaauw form Warnsveld in Holland, continues to run the realty business that his father started after World Wa= r II in Bielefeld.


Figure 18: August Adam and Friederike n&eacu= te;e Peithmann in Bielefeld


August<= /b>

born November 5th, 1896, died December 2nd, 1896



I thank the following ladies and gentlemen f= or their contributions and information: Wilfried Adam (B= ielefeld), Elfriede Beckschewe (Espelkamp-Frotheim), Lina Heidenreich (Hille-Oberlübbe), Alwine Meyer (Enger), Hermann Peithmann (Bad Essen-Wimmer), Dr. Ludolf Peithmann (Hagen= ), Wilhelmine Scholz (Nienburg), Marie Stamke (Löhne) and Lina Twiehoff (= Essen).


Unprinted Sources<= /o:p>

Church registers of Bergkirchen, district of Minden-Lübbecke

Peithmann, H. (1979): Nachfahrenliste von August Heinrich Wilhelm Peithmann. Rostock



see German text

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